Difference between revisions of "2020 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 15"

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==Solution==
 
==Solution==
 
The prime factorization of <math>12!</math> is <math>2^{10} \cdot 3^5 \cdot 5^2 \cdot 7 \cdot 11</math>.  
 
The prime factorization of <math>12!</math> is <math>2^{10} \cdot 3^5 \cdot 5^2 \cdot 7 \cdot 11</math>.  
This yields a total of <math>11</math> * <math>6</math> * <math>3</math> * <math>2</math> * <math>2</math> divisors of 12!.
+
This yields a total of <math>11 \cdot 6 \cdot 3 \cdot 2 \cdot 2</math> divisors of <math>12!.</math>
 
In order to produce a perfect square divisor, there must be an even exponent for each number in the prime factorization. Thus, there are 5 * 3 * 2 perfect squares. (For 2, you can have 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 2s, etc. Note that 7 and 11 can not be in the prime factorization of a perfect square because there is only one of each in 12!.)
 
In order to produce a perfect square divisor, there must be an even exponent for each number in the prime factorization. Thus, there are 5 * 3 * 2 perfect squares. (For 2, you can have 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 2s, etc. Note that 7 and 11 can not be in the prime factorization of a perfect square because there is only one of each in 12!.)
 
The probability that the divisor chosen is a perfect square is 1/22. m + n = 23.
 
The probability that the divisor chosen is a perfect square is 1/22. m + n = 23.

Revision as of 22:03, 31 January 2020

Problem

A positive integer divisor of $12!$ is chosen at random. The probability that the divisor chosen is a perfect square can be expressed as $\frac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. What is $m+n$?

$\textbf{(A)}\ 3\qquad\textbf{(B)}\ 5\qquad\textbf{(C)}\ 12\qquad\textbf{(D)}\ 18\qquad\textbf{(E)}\ 23$

Solution

The prime factorization of $12!$ is $2^{10} \cdot 3^5 \cdot 5^2 \cdot 7 \cdot 11$. This yields a total of $11 \cdot 6 \cdot 3 \cdot 2 \cdot 2$ divisors of $12!.$ In order to produce a perfect square divisor, there must be an even exponent for each number in the prime factorization. Thus, there are 5 * 3 * 2 perfect squares. (For 2, you can have 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 2s, etc. Note that 7 and 11 can not be in the prime factorization of a perfect square because there is only one of each in 12!.) The probability that the divisor chosen is a perfect square is 1/22. m + n = 23.

See Also

2020 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 14
Followed by
Problem 16
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions

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