Difference between revisions of "2020 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 17"
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− | Let <math>P(x) = x^5+ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+2020</math>. We first notice that <math>\frac{-1+i\sqrt{3}}{2} = e^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>. That is because of Euler's Formula : <math>e^{ix} = cos(x) + i \cdot sin(x)</math>. <math>\frac{-1+i\sqrt{3}}{2}</math> = <math>-\frac{1}{2} + i \cdot \frac {sqrt(3)}{2}</math> = <math>cos(120) + i \cdot sin(120)</math> = <math>e^{i \cdot 120(degrees)</math> = <math>e^{i \frac{2}{3} \pi (radians)</math> .In order <math>r</math> to be a root of <math>P</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> must also be a root of P, meaning that 3 of the roots of <math>P</math> must be <math>r</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math>. However, since <math>P</math> is degree 5, there must be two additional roots. Let one of these roots be <math>w</math>, if <math>w</math> is a root, then <math>we^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> and <math>we^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math> must also be roots. However, <math>P</math> is a fifth degree polynomial, and can therefore only have <math>5</math> roots. This implies that <math>w</math> is either <math>r</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>, or <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math>. Thus we know that the polynomial <math>P</math> can be written in the form <math>(x-r)^m(x-re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}})^n(x-re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}})^p</math>. Moreover, by Vieta's, we know that there is only one possible value for the magnitude of <math>r</math> as <math>||r||^5 = 2020</math>, meaning that the amount of possible polynomials <math>P</math> is equivalent to the possible sets <math>(m,n,p)</math>. In order for the coefficients of the polynomial to all be real, <math>n = p</math> due to <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> and <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math> being conjugates and since <math>m+n+p = 5</math>, (as the polynomial is 5th degree) we have two possible solutions for <math>(m, n, p)</math> which are <math>(1,2,2)</math> and <math>(3,1,1)</math> yielding two possible polynomials. The answer is thus <math>\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 2}</math>. | + | Let <math>P(x) = x^5+ax^4+bx^3+cx^2+dx+2020</math>. We first notice that <math>\frac{-1+i\sqrt{3}}{2} = e^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>. That is because of Euler's Formula : <math>e^{ix} = cos(x) + i \cdot sin(x)</math>. <math>\frac{-1+i\sqrt{3}}{2}</math> = <math>-\frac{1}{2} + i \cdot \frac {sqrt(3)}{2}</math> = <math>cos(120) + i \cdot sin(120)</math> = <math>e^{i \cdot 120(degrees)</math> = <math>e^{i \frac{2}{3} \pi (radians)}</math> .In order <math>r</math> to be a root of <math>P</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> must also be a root of P, meaning that 3 of the roots of <math>P</math> must be <math>r</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math>. However, since <math>P</math> is degree 5, there must be two additional roots. Let one of these roots be <math>w</math>, if <math>w</math> is a root, then <math>we^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> and <math>we^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math> must also be roots. However, <math>P</math> is a fifth degree polynomial, and can therefore only have <math>5</math> roots. This implies that <math>w</math> is either <math>r</math>, <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math>, or <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math>. Thus we know that the polynomial <math>P</math> can be written in the form <math>(x-r)^m(x-re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}})^n(x-re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}})^p</math>. Moreover, by Vieta's, we know that there is only one possible value for the magnitude of <math>r</math> as <math>||r||^5 = 2020</math>, meaning that the amount of possible polynomials <math>P</math> is equivalent to the possible sets <math>(m,n,p)</math>. In order for the coefficients of the polynomial to all be real, <math>n = p</math> due to <math>re^{i\frac{2\pi}{3}}</math> and <math>re^{i\frac{4\pi}{3}}</math> being conjugates and since <math>m+n+p = 5</math>, (as the polynomial is 5th degree) we have two possible solutions for <math>(m, n, p)</math> which are <math>(1,2,2)</math> and <math>(3,1,1)</math> yielding two possible polynomials. The answer is thus <math>\boxed{\textbf{(C) } 2}</math>. |
~Murtagh (edited by totoro.selsel) | ~Murtagh (edited by totoro.selsel) |
Revision as of 23:35, 18 August 2020
Contents
Problem
How many polynomials of the form , where , , , and are real numbers, have the property that whenever is a root, so is ? (Note that )
Solution 1
Let . We first notice that . That is because of Euler's Formula : . = = = $e^{i \cdot 120(degrees)$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing } inserted.) = .In order to be a root of , must also be a root of P, meaning that 3 of the roots of must be , , . However, since is degree 5, there must be two additional roots. Let one of these roots be , if is a root, then and must also be roots. However, is a fifth degree polynomial, and can therefore only have roots. This implies that is either , , or . Thus we know that the polynomial can be written in the form . Moreover, by Vieta's, we know that there is only one possible value for the magnitude of as , meaning that the amount of possible polynomials is equivalent to the possible sets . In order for the coefficients of the polynomial to all be real, due to and being conjugates and since , (as the polynomial is 5th degree) we have two possible solutions for which are and yielding two possible polynomials. The answer is thus .
~Murtagh (edited by totoro.selsel)
Solution 2
Let , then , x_3=〖((-1+i√3)/2)〗^2 r=(-1-i√3)/2 r, x_4=〖((-1+i√3)/2)〗^3 r=r which means x_4 will be back to x_1 Now we have 3 different roots of the polynomial, x_(1 ) 〖,x〗_2, and x_3. next we gonna prove that all 5 roots of the polynomial must be chosen from those 3 roots. Let us assume that there has one root x_4=p which is different from the three roots we already know, then there must be another two roots, x_5=〖((-1+i√3)/2)〗^2 p=(-1-i√3)/2 p and x_6=〖((-1+i√3)/2)〗^3 p=p, different from all known roots. So we got 6 different roots for the polynomial, which is impossible. Therefore the assumption of the different root is wrong. The polynomial then can be written like f(x)=〖(x-x_1)〗^m 〖(x-x_2)〗^n 〖(x-x_3)〗^q,m,n,q are non-negative integers and m+n+q=5. Since a,b,c and d are real numbers, n must be equal to q. Therefore (m,n,q) can only be (1,2,2) or (3,1,1), so the answer is (C) 2
~Yelong_Li
See Also
2020 AMC 12B (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | |
Preceded by Problem 16 |
Followed by Problem 18 |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 22 • 23 • 24 • 25 | |
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions |
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