Difference between revisions of "2020 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 18"

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==Problem==
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==Problem 18==
 
Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter <math>\overline{FE},</math> as shown in the figure. Let <math>DA=16,</math> and let <math>FD=AE=9.</math> What is the area of <math>ABCD?</math>
 
Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter <math>\overline{FE},</math> as shown in the figure. Let <math>DA=16,</math> and let <math>FD=AE=9.</math> What is the area of <math>ABCD?</math>
  
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<asy>  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));</asy>
 
<asy>  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));</asy>
  
Let <math>O</math> be the center of the semicircle. The diameter of the semicircle is <math>9+16+9=34</math>, so <math>OC = 17</math>. By symmetry, <math>O</math> is in fact the midpoint of <math>DA</math>, so <math>OD=OA=\frac{16}{2}= </math>. By the Pythagorean theorem in right-angled triangle <math>ODC</math> (or <math>OBA</math>), we have that <math>CD</math> (or <math>AB</math>) is <math>\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15</math>. Accordingly, the area of <math>ABCD</math> is <math>16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
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Let <math>O</math> be the center of the semicircle. The diameter of the semicircle is <math>9+16+9=34</math>, so <math>OC = 17</math>. By symmetry, <math>O</math> is in fact the midpoint of <math>DA</math>, so <math>OD=OA=\frac{16}{2}= 8</math>. By the Pythagorean theorem in right-angled triangle <math>ODC</math> (or <math>OBA</math>), we have that <math>CD</math> (or <math>AB</math>) is <math>\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15</math>. Accordingly, the area of <math>ABCD</math> is <math>16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
  
 
==Solution 2 (coordinate geometry)==
 
==Solution 2 (coordinate geometry)==
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(Note that the synthetic solution (Solution 1) is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier strategy.)
 
(Note that the synthetic solution (Solution 1) is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier strategy.)
  
==Solution 3 -==
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==Solution 3==
We can use a result from the Art of Problem Solving <i>Introduction to Algebra</i> book: for a semicircle with diameter <math>(1+n)</math>, such that the <math>1</math> part is on one side and the <math>n</math> part is on the other side, the height from the end of the <math>1</math> side (or the start of the <math>n</math> side) is <math>\sqrt{n}</math>. To use this, we scale the figure down by <math>9</math>; then the height is <math>\sqrt{1+\frac{16}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{16+9}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{25}{9}} = \frac{5}{3}</math>. Now, scaling back up by <math>9</math>, the height <math>DC</math> is <math>9 \cdot \frac{5}{3} = 15</math>. The answer is <math>15 \cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.<br>
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We can use a result from the Art of Problem Solving <i>Introduction to Algebra</i> book Sidenote: for a semicircle with diameter <math>(1+n)</math>, such that the <math>1</math> part is on one side and the <math>n</math> part is on the other side, the height from the end of the <math>1</math> side (or the start of the <math>n</math> side) is <math>\sqrt{n}</math>. To use this formula, we scale the figure down by <math>9</math>; this will give the height a length of <math>\sqrt{\frac{16+9}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{25}{9}} = \frac{5}{3}</math>. Now, scaling back up by <math>9</math>, the height <math>DC</math> is <math>9 \cdot \frac{5}{3} = 15</math>. The answer is then <math>15 \cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
-[[User:Sweetmango77|SweetMango77]]; edited by someone else (I don't know who)
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-[[User:Sweetmango77|SweetMango77]]
  
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==Solution 4 (Power Of A Point)==
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Draw the other half of the circle as follows:
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<asy>
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draw(arc((0,0),17,360,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*SE); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*SW); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*E); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*W); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); draw((-8,-15)--(-8,0)--(8,0)--(8,-15)--cycle); dot("$B'$",(8,-15), 1.25*S); dot("$C'$",(-8,-15), 1.25*S);
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</asy>
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By Power of a Point, <math>FD\cdot DE = CD\cdot C'D</math>. By symmetry, <math>CD = C'D</math>. We see that <math>FD = 9</math> and <math>DE = 25</math>. Substituting in these values, <math>9\cdot 25 = CD^2</math>, giving <math>CD^2 = 225</math> and <math>CD = 15</math>.
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The area of the rectangle is therefore <math>15\cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
 
==Video Solution==
 
==Video Solution==
https://youtu.be/l9wZS3qGSCg
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https://youtu.be/VnOecUiP-SA
  
 
{{AMC8 box|year=2020|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
{{AMC8 box|year=2020|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
[[Category:Introductory Geometry Problems]]
 
[[Category:Introductory Geometry Problems]]
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 23:24, 9 January 2021

Problem 18

Rectangle $ABCD$ is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter $\overline{FE},$ as shown in the figure. Let $DA=16,$ and let $FD=AE=9.$ What is the area of $ABCD?$

[asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N);  [/asy] $\textbf{(A) }240 \qquad \textbf{(B) }248 \qquad \textbf{(C) }256 \qquad \textbf{(D) }264 \qquad \textbf{(E) }272$

Solution 1

[asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));[/asy]

Let $O$ be the center of the semicircle. The diameter of the semicircle is $9+16+9=34$, so $OC = 17$. By symmetry, $O$ is in fact the midpoint of $DA$, so $OD=OA=\frac{16}{2}= 8$. By the Pythagorean theorem in right-angled triangle $ODC$ (or $OBA$), we have that $CD$ (or $AB$) is $\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15$. Accordingly, the area of $ABCD$ is $16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

Solution 2 (coordinate geometry)

Let the midpoint of segment $FE$ be the origin. Evidently, point $D=(-8,0)$ and $A=(8,0)$. Since points $C$ and $B$ share $x$-coordinates with $D$ and $A$ respectively, it suffices to find the $y$-coordinate of $B$ (which will be the height of the rectangle) and multiply this by $DA$ (which we know is $16$). The radius of the semicircle is $\frac{9+16+9}{2} = 17$, so the whole circle has equation $x^2+y^2=289$; as already stated, $B$ has the same $x$-coordinate as $A$, i.e. $8$, so substituting this into the equation shows that $y=\pm15$. Since $y>0$ at $B$, the y-coordinate of $B$ is $15$. Therefore, the answer is $16\cdot 15 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

(Note that the synthetic solution (Solution 1) is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier strategy.)

Solution 3

We can use a result from the Art of Problem Solving Introduction to Algebra book Sidenote: for a semicircle with diameter $(1+n)$, such that the $1$ part is on one side and the $n$ part is on the other side, the height from the end of the $1$ side (or the start of the $n$ side) is $\sqrt{n}$. To use this formula, we scale the figure down by $9$; this will give the height a length of $\sqrt{\frac{16+9}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{25}{9}} = \frac{5}{3}$. Now, scaling back up by $9$, the height $DC$ is $9 \cdot \frac{5}{3} = 15$. The answer is then $15 \cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$. -SweetMango77

Solution 4 (Power Of A Point)

Draw the other half of the circle as follows: [asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,360,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*SE); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*SW); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*E); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*W); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); draw((-8,-15)--(-8,0)--(8,0)--(8,-15)--cycle); dot("$B'$",(8,-15), 1.25*S); dot("$C'$",(-8,-15), 1.25*S); [/asy] By Power of a Point, $FD\cdot DE = CD\cdot C'D$. By symmetry, $CD = C'D$. We see that $FD = 9$ and $DE = 25$. Substituting in these values, $9\cdot 25 = CD^2$, giving $CD^2 = 225$ and $CD = 15$. The area of the rectangle is therefore $15\cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/VnOecUiP-SA

2020 AMC 8 (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 17
Followed by
Problem 19
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