Difference between revisions of "2020 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 18"

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(Video Solution)
 
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==Problem 18==
 
Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter <math>\overline{FE},</math> as shown in the figure. Let <math>DA=16,</math> and let <math>FD=AE=9.</math> What is the area of <math>ABCD?</math>
 
Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter <math>\overline{FE},</math> as shown in the figure. Let <math>DA=16,</math> and let <math>FD=AE=9.</math> What is the area of <math>ABCD?</math>
  
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<math>\textbf{(A) }240 \qquad \textbf{(B) }248 \qquad \textbf{(C) }256 \qquad \textbf{(D) }264 \qquad \textbf{(E) }272</math>
 
<math>\textbf{(A) }240 \qquad \textbf{(B) }248 \qquad \textbf{(C) }256 \qquad \textbf{(D) }264 \qquad \textbf{(E) }272</math>
  
==Solution==
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==Solution 1==
First, realize <math>ABCD</math> is not a square. It can easily be seen that the diameter of the semicircle is <math>9+16+9=34</math>, so the radius is <math>\frac{34}{2}=17</math>. Express the area of Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> as <math>16h</math>, where <math>h=AB</math>. Notice that by the Pythagorean theorem <math>8^2+h^{2}=17^{2}\implies h=15</math>. Then, the area of Rectangle <math>ABCD</math> is equal to <math>16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>. ~icematrix
 
 
 
 
 
==Solution 2==
 
 
 
 
<asy>  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));</asy>
 
<asy>  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));</asy>
  
We have <math>OC=17</math>, as it is a radius, and <math>OD=8</math> since it is half of <math>AD</math>. This means that <math>CD=\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15</math>. So <math>16*15=\boxed{\textbf{(A)}240}</math>
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Let <math>O</math> be the center of the semicircle. The diameter of the semicircle is <math>9+16+9=34</math>, so <math>OC = 17</math>. By symmetry, <math>O</math> is in fact the midpoint of <math>DA</math>, so <math>OD=OA=\frac{16}{2}= 8</math>. By the Pythagorean theorem in right-angled triangle <math>ODC</math> (or <math>OBA</math>), we have that <math>CD</math> (or <math>AB</math>) is <math>\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15</math>. Accordingly, the area of <math>ABCD</math> is <math>16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
  
~yofro
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==Solution 2 (coordinate geometry)==
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Let the midpoint of segment <math>FE</math> be the origin. Evidently, point <math>D=(-8,0)</math> and <math>A=(8,0)</math>. Since points <math>C</math> and <math>B</math> share <math>x</math>-coordinates with <math>D</math> and <math>A</math> respectively, it suffices to find the <math>y</math>-coordinate of <math>B</math> (which will be the height of the rectangle) and multiply this by <math>DA</math> (which we know is <math>16</math>). The radius of the semicircle is <math>\frac{9+16+9}{2} = 17</math>, so the whole circle has equation <math>x^2+y^2=289</math>; as already stated, <math>B</math> has the same <math>x</math>-coordinate as <math>A</math>, i.e. <math>8</math>, so substituting this into the equation shows that <math>y=\pm15</math>. Since <math>y>0</math> at <math>B</math>, the y-coordinate of <math>B</math> is <math>15</math>. Therefore, the answer is <math>16\cdot 15 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
  
==Solution 3 (coordinate bashing)==
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(Note that the synthetic solution (Solution 1) is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier strategy.)
  
Let the midpoint of segment <math>FE</math> be the origin. Evidently, point <math>D</math> is at <math>(-8, 0)</math> and <math>A</math> is at <math>(8, 0)</math>. Since points <math>C</math> and <math>B</math> share x-coordinates with <math>D</math> and <math>A</math>, respectively, we can just find the y-coordinate of <math>B</math> (which is just the width of the rectangle) and multiply this by <math>DA</math>, or <math>16</math>. Since the radius of the semicircle is <math>\frac{9+16+9}{2}</math>, or <math>17</math>, the equation of the circle that our semicircle is a part of is <math>x^2+y^2=289</math>. Since we know that the x-coordinate of <math>B</math> is <math>8</math>, we can plug this into our equation to obtain that <math>y=\pm15</math>. Since <math>y>0</math>, as the diagram suggests, we know that the y-coordinate of <math>B</math> is <math>15</math>. Therefore, our answer is <math>16\cdot 15</math>, or <math>\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
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==Solution 3==
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We can use a result from the Art of Problem Solving <i>Introduction to Algebra</i> book Sidenote: for a semicircle with diameter <math>(1+n)</math>, such that the <math>1</math> part is on one side and the <math>n</math> part is on the other side, the height from the end of the <math>1</math> side (or the start of the <math>n</math> side) is <math>\sqrt{n}</math>. To use this formula, we scale the figure down by <math>9</math>; this will give the height a length of <math>\sqrt{\frac{16+9}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{25}{9}} = \frac{5}{3}</math>. Now, scaling back up by <math>9</math>, the height <math>DC</math> is <math>9 \cdot \frac{5}{3} = 15</math>. The answer is then <math>15 \cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
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-[[User:Sweetmango77|SweetMango77]]
  
NOTE: The synthetic solution is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier solution.
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==Solution 4 (Power Of A Point)==
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Draw the other half of the circle as follows:
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<asy>
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draw(arc((0,0),17,360,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*SE); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*SW); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*E); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*W); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); draw((-8,-15)--(-8,0)--(8,0)--(8,-15)--cycle); dot("$B'$",(8,-15), 1.25*S); dot("$C'$",(-8,-15), 1.25*S);
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</asy>
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By Power of a Point, <math>FD\cdot DE = CD\cdot C'D</math>. By symmetry, <math>CD = C'D</math>. We see that <math>FD = 9</math> and <math>DE = 25</math>. Substituting in these values, <math>9\cdot 25 = CD^2</math>, giving <math>CD^2 = 225</math> and <math>CD = 15</math>.
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The area of the rectangle is therefore <math>15\cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}</math>.
  
- StarryNight7210
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==Video Solution by WhyMath==
 +
https://youtu.be/l9wZS3qGSCg
  
==Solution 4==
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~savannahsolver
  
First, realize that <math>ABCD</math> is not a square. Let <math>O</math> be the midpoint of <math>FE</math>. Since <math>FE=9+9+16=34</math>, we have <math>OF=OE=\frac{34}{2}=17=OB</math> because they are all radii. Since <math>O</math> is also the midpoint of <math>AD</math>, we have <math>OA=\frac{16}2=8</math>. By the Pythagorean Theorem on <math>\triangle BAO</math>, we find that <math>AB=15</math>. The answer is then <math>16\cdot 15=\textbf{(A) }240</math>.
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==Video Solution==
 +
https://youtu.be/VnOecUiP-SA
  
-franzliszt
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==Video Solution by Interstigation==
 +
https://youtu.be/YnwkBZTv5Fw?t=852
  
==Solution 5 -SweetMango77==
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~Interstigation
  
This is an example of a formula in the Introduction to Algebra book (a sidenote): with a semicircle: if the diameter is <math>1+n</math> with the <math>1</math> part at one side, and the <math>n</math> part at the other side, then the height from the end of the <math>1</math> side and the start of the <math>n</math> side is <math>\sqrt{n}</math>.
 
  
Using this, we can scale the image down by <math>9</math> to get what we note: The other side will be <math>\frac{16+9}{9}=\frac{25}{3}=\left(\frac{5}{3}\right)^2</math>. Then, the height of that part will be <math>\frac{5}{3}</math>. But, we have to scale it back up by <math>9</math> to get a height of <math>15</math>. Multiplying by <math>16</math> gives our desired answer: <math>\textbf{(A) }240</math>.
 
 
==See also==
 
 
{{AMC8 box|year=2020|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
{{AMC8 box|year=2020|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
 
[[Category:Introductory Geometry Problems]]
 
[[Category:Introductory Geometry Problems]]
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 14:34, 18 April 2021

Problem 18

Rectangle $ABCD$ is inscribed in a semicircle with diameter $\overline{FE},$ as shown in the figure. Let $DA=16,$ and let $FD=AE=9.$ What is the area of $ABCD?$

[asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N);  [/asy] $\textbf{(A) }240 \qquad \textbf{(B) }248 \qquad \textbf{(C) }256 \qquad \textbf{(D) }264 \qquad \textbf{(E) }272$

Solution 1

[asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,180,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*S); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*S); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*S); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); dot("$O$", (0,0), 1.25*S); draw((0,0)--(-8,15));[/asy]

Let $O$ be the center of the semicircle. The diameter of the semicircle is $9+16+9=34$, so $OC = 17$. By symmetry, $O$ is in fact the midpoint of $DA$, so $OD=OA=\frac{16}{2}= 8$. By the Pythagorean theorem in right-angled triangle $ODC$ (or $OBA$), we have that $CD$ (or $AB$) is $\sqrt{17^2-8^2}=15$. Accordingly, the area of $ABCD$ is $16\cdot 15=\boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

Solution 2 (coordinate geometry)

Let the midpoint of segment $FE$ be the origin. Evidently, point $D=(-8,0)$ and $A=(8,0)$. Since points $C$ and $B$ share $x$-coordinates with $D$ and $A$ respectively, it suffices to find the $y$-coordinate of $B$ (which will be the height of the rectangle) and multiply this by $DA$ (which we know is $16$). The radius of the semicircle is $\frac{9+16+9}{2} = 17$, so the whole circle has equation $x^2+y^2=289$; as already stated, $B$ has the same $x$-coordinate as $A$, i.e. $8$, so substituting this into the equation shows that $y=\pm15$. Since $y>0$ at $B$, the y-coordinate of $B$ is $15$. Therefore, the answer is $16\cdot 15 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

(Note that the synthetic solution (Solution 1) is definitely faster and more elegant. However, this is the solution that you should use if you can't see any other easier strategy.)

Solution 3

We can use a result from the Art of Problem Solving Introduction to Algebra book Sidenote: for a semicircle with diameter $(1+n)$, such that the $1$ part is on one side and the $n$ part is on the other side, the height from the end of the $1$ side (or the start of the $n$ side) is $\sqrt{n}$. To use this formula, we scale the figure down by $9$; this will give the height a length of $\sqrt{\frac{16+9}{9}} = \sqrt{\frac{25}{9}} = \frac{5}{3}$. Now, scaling back up by $9$, the height $DC$ is $9 \cdot \frac{5}{3} = 15$. The answer is then $15 \cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$. -SweetMango77

Solution 4 (Power Of A Point)

Draw the other half of the circle as follows: [asy]  draw(arc((0,0),17,360,0)); draw((-17,0)--(17,0)); fill((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle, 1.5*grey); draw((-8,0)--(-8,15)--(8,15)--(8,0)--cycle); dot("$A$",(8,0), 1.25*SE); dot("$B$",(8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$C$",(-8,15), 1.25*N); dot("$D$",(-8,0), 1.25*SW); dot("$E$",(17,0), 1.25*E); dot("$F$",(-17,0), 1.25*W); label("$16$",(0,0),N); label("$9$",(12.5,0),N); label("$9$",(-12.5,0),N); draw((-8,-15)--(-8,0)--(8,0)--(8,-15)--cycle); dot("$B'$",(8,-15), 1.25*S); dot("$C'$",(-8,-15), 1.25*S); [/asy] By Power of a Point, $FD\cdot DE = CD\cdot C'D$. By symmetry, $CD = C'D$. We see that $FD = 9$ and $DE = 25$. Substituting in these values, $9\cdot 25 = CD^2$, giving $CD^2 = 225$ and $CD = 15$. The area of the rectangle is therefore $15\cdot 16 = \boxed{\textbf{(A) }240}$.

Video Solution by WhyMath

https://youtu.be/l9wZS3qGSCg

~savannahsolver

Video Solution

https://youtu.be/VnOecUiP-SA

Video Solution by Interstigation

https://youtu.be/YnwkBZTv5Fw?t=852

~Interstigation


2020 AMC 8 (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 17
Followed by
Problem 19
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