Difference between revisions of "2021 AIME II Problems/Problem 15"
MRENTHUSIASM (talk | contribs) (Added in Sol 2.) |
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\end{cases}</cmath>for positive integers <math>n</math>. Find the least positive integer <math>n</math> such that <math>\tfrac{f(n)}{g(n)} = \tfrac{4}{7}</math>. | \end{cases}</cmath>for positive integers <math>n</math>. Find the least positive integer <math>n</math> such that <math>\tfrac{f(n)}{g(n)} = \tfrac{4}{7}</math>. | ||
− | ==Solution== | + | ==Solution 1== |
Consider what happens when we try to calculate <math>f(n)</math> where n is not a square. If <math>k^2<n<(k+1)^2</math> for (positive) integer k, recursively calculating the value of the function gives us <math>f(n)=(k+1)^2-n+f((k+1)^2)=k^2+3k+2-n</math>. Note that this formula also returns the correct value when <math>n=(k+1)^2</math>, but not when <math>n=k^2</math>. Thus <math>f(n)=k^2+3k+2-n</math> for <math>k^2<n \leq (k+1)^2</math>. | Consider what happens when we try to calculate <math>f(n)</math> where n is not a square. If <math>k^2<n<(k+1)^2</math> for (positive) integer k, recursively calculating the value of the function gives us <math>f(n)=(k+1)^2-n+f((k+1)^2)=k^2+3k+2-n</math>. Note that this formula also returns the correct value when <math>n=(k+1)^2</math>, but not when <math>n=k^2</math>. Thus <math>f(n)=k^2+3k+2-n</math> for <math>k^2<n \leq (k+1)^2</math>. | ||
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Write <math>7f(n)=4g(n)</math>, which simplifies to <math>3k^2+k-10=3n</math>. Notice that we want the <math>LHS</math> expression to be divisible by 3; as a result, <math>k \equiv 1 \pmod{3}</math>. We also want n to be strictly greater than <math>k^2</math>, so <math>k-10>0, k>10</math>. The LHS expression is always even (why?), so to ensure that k and n share the same parity, k should be even. Then the least k that satisfies these requirements is <math>k=16</math>, giving <math>n=258</math>. | Write <math>7f(n)=4g(n)</math>, which simplifies to <math>3k^2+k-10=3n</math>. Notice that we want the <math>LHS</math> expression to be divisible by 3; as a result, <math>k \equiv 1 \pmod{3}</math>. We also want n to be strictly greater than <math>k^2</math>, so <math>k-10>0, k>10</math>. The LHS expression is always even (why?), so to ensure that k and n share the same parity, k should be even. Then the least k that satisfies these requirements is <math>k=16</math>, giving <math>n=258</math>. | ||
− | Indeed - if we check our answer, it works. Therefore, the answer is <math>\boxed{258}</math> | + | Indeed - if we check our answer, it works. Therefore, the answer is <math>\boxed{258}</math>. |
-Ross Gao | -Ross Gao | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==Solution 2 (More Variables)== | ||
+ | We restrict <math>n</math> in which <math>k^2<n\leq(k+1)^2</math> for some positive integer <math>k,</math> or <cmath>n=(k+1)^2-p\hspace{15mm}(1)</cmath> for some nonnegative integer <math>p.</math> By observations, we get | ||
+ | <cmath>\begin{align*} | ||
+ | f\left((k+1)^2\right)&=k+1, \\ | ||
+ | f\left((k+1)^2-1\right)&=k+2, \\ | ||
+ | f\left((k+1)^2-2\right)&=k+3, \\ | ||
+ | &\cdots \\ | ||
+ | f\bigl(\phantom{ }\underbrace{(k+1)^2-p}_{n}\phantom{ }\bigr)&=k+p+1. \\ | ||
+ | \end{align*}</cmath> | ||
+ | |||
+ | ~MRENTHUSIASM | ||
==Video Solution== | ==Video Solution== |
Revision as of 02:56, 12 May 2021
Problem
Let and be functions satisfying and for positive integers . Find the least positive integer such that .
Solution 1
Consider what happens when we try to calculate where n is not a square. If for (positive) integer k, recursively calculating the value of the function gives us . Note that this formula also returns the correct value when , but not when . Thus for .
If , returns the same value as . This is because the recursion once again stops at . We seek a case in which , so obviously this is not what we want. We want to have a different parity, or have the same parity. When this is the case, instead returns .
Write , which simplifies to . Notice that we want the expression to be divisible by 3; as a result, . We also want n to be strictly greater than , so . The LHS expression is always even (why?), so to ensure that k and n share the same parity, k should be even. Then the least k that satisfies these requirements is , giving .
Indeed - if we check our answer, it works. Therefore, the answer is .
-Ross Gao
Solution 2 (More Variables)
We restrict in which for some positive integer or for some nonnegative integer By observations, we get
~MRENTHUSIASM
Video Solution
See also
2021 AIME II (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | ||
Preceded by Problem 14 |
Followed by Last Question | |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 | ||
All AIME Problems and Solutions |
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