# Difference between revisions of "2021 AIME I Problems/Problem 11"

## Problem

Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral with $AB=4,BC=5,CD=6,$ and $DA=7$. Let $A_1$ and $C_1$ be the feet of the perpendiculars from $A$ and $C$, respectively, to line $BD,$ and let $B_1$ and $D_1$ be the feet of the perpendiculars from $B$ and $D,$ respectively, to line $AC$. The perimeter of $A_1B_1C_1D_1$ is $\frac mn$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

## Solution 1

Let $O$ be the intersection of $AC$ and $BD$. Let $\theta = \angle AOB$.

Firstly, since $\angle AA_1D = \angle AD_1D = 90^\circ$, we deduce that $AA_1D_1D$ is cyclic. This implies that $\triangle A_1OD_1 \sim \triangle AOD$, with a ratio of $\frac{A_1O}{AO} = \cos \angle A_1OA = \cos \theta$. This means that $\frac{A_1D_1}{AD} = \cos \theta$. Similarly, $\frac{A_1B_1}{AB} = \frac{B_1C_1}{BC} = \frac{C_1D_1}{CD} = \cos \theta$. Hence $$A_1B_1 + B_1C_1 + C_1D_1 + D_1A_1 = (AB + BC + CD + DA)\cos \theta$$ It therefore only remains to find $\cos \theta$.

From Ptolemy's theorem, we have that $(BD)(AC) = 4\times6+5\times7 = 59$. From Brahmagupta's Formula, $[ABCD] = \sqrt{(11-4)(11-5)(11-6)(11-7)} = 2\sqrt{210}$. But the area is also $\frac{1}{2}(BD)(AC)\sin\theta = \frac{59}{2}\sin\theta$, so $\sin \theta = \frac{4\sqrt{210}}{59} \implies \cos \theta = \frac{11}{59}$. Then the desired fraction is $(4+5+6+7)\cos\theta = \frac{242}{59}$ for an answer of $\boxed{301}$.

## Solution 2 (Finding cos{x})

The angle $\theta$ between diagonals satisfies $$\tan{\frac{\theta}{2}}=\sqrt{\frac{(s-b)(s-d)}{(s-a)(s-c)}}$$ (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyclic_quadrilateral#Angle_formulas). Thus, $$\tan{\frac{\theta}{2}}=\sqrt{\frac{(11-4)(11-6)}{(11-5)(11-7)}}$$ or $$\tan{\frac{\theta}{2}}=\sqrt{\frac{(11-5)(11-7)}{(11-4)(11-6)}}$$ That is, $\tan^2{\frac{\theta}{2}}=\frac{1-\cos^2{\frac{\theta}{2}}}{\cos^2{\frac{\theta}{2}}}=\frac{24}{35}$ or $\frac{35}{24}$ Thus, $\cos^2{\frac{\theta}{2}}=\frac{35}{59}$ or $\frac{24}{59}$ $$\cos{\theta}=2\cos^2{\frac{\theta}{2}}-1=\frac{\pm11}{59}$$ In this context, $\cos{\theta}>0$. Thus, $\cos{\theta}=\frac{11}{59}$ $$Ans=22*\cos{\theta}=22*\frac{11}{59}=\frac{242}{59}=\frac{m}{n}$$ $$m+n=242+59=\boxed{301}$$ ~y.grace.yu

## Solution 3 (Pythagorean Theorem)

We assume that the two quadrilateral mentioned in the problem are similar (due to both of them being cyclic). Note that by Ptolemy’s, one of the diagonals has length $\sqrt{4 \cdot 6 + 5 \cdot 7} = \sqrt{59}.$ WLOG we focus on diagonal $BD.$ To find the diagonal of the inner quadrilateral, we drop the altitude from $A$ and $C$ and calculate the length of $A_1C_1.$ Let $x$ be $A_1D$ (Thus $A_1B = \sqrt{59} - x.$ By Pythagorean theorem, we have $$49 - x^2 = 16 - (\sqrt{59} - x)^2 \implies 92 = 2\sqrt{59}x \implies x = \frac{46}{\sqrt{59}} = \frac{46\sqrt{59}}{59}.$$ Now let $y$ be $C_1D.$ (thus making $C_1B = \sqrt{59} - y$). Similarly, we have $$36 - y^2 = 25 - (\sqrt{59} - y)^2 \implies 70 = 2\sqrt{59}y \implies y = \frac{35}{\sqrt{59}} = \frac{35\sqrt{59}}{59}.$$ We see that $A_1C_1$, the scaled down diagonal is just $x - y = \frac{11\sqrt{59}}{59},$ which is $\frac{\frac{11\sqrt{59}}{59}}{\sqrt{59}} = \frac{11}{59}$ times our original diagonal $BD,$ implying a scale factor of $\frac{11}{59}.$ Thus, due to perimeters scaling linearly, the perimeter of the new quadrilateral is simply $\frac{11}{59} \cdot 22 = \frac{242}{59},$ making our answer $242+59 = \boxed{301}.$ -fidgetboss_4000

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