# 2021 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 10

The following problem is from both the 2021 AMC 10A #12 and 2021 AMC 12A #10, so both problems redirect to this page.

## Problem

Two right circular cones with vertices facing down as shown in the figure below contains the same amount of liquid. The radii of the tops of the liquid surfaces are $3$ cm and $6$ cm. Into each cone is dropped a spherical marble of radius $1$ cm, which sinks to the bottom and is completely submerged without spilling any liquid. What is the ratio of the rise of the liquid level in the narrow cone to the rise of the liquid level in the wide cone?

$[asy] size(350); defaultpen(linewidth(0.8)); real h1 = 10, r = 3.1, s=0.75; pair P = (r,h1), Q = (-r,h1), Pp = s * P, Qp = s * Q; path e = ellipse((0,h1),r,0.9), ep = ellipse((0,h1*s),r*s,0.9); draw(ellipse(origin,r*(s-0.1),0.8)); fill(ep,gray(0.8)); fill(origin--Pp--Qp--cycle,gray(0.8)); draw((-r,h1)--(0,0)--(r,h1)^^e); draw(subpath(ep,0,reltime(ep,0.5)),linetype("4 4")); draw(subpath(ep,reltime(ep,0.5),reltime(ep,1))); draw(Qp--(0,Qp.y),Arrows(size=8)); draw(origin--(0,12),linetype("4 4")); draw(origin--(r*(s-0.1),0)); label("3",(-0.9,h1*s),N,fontsize(10)); real h2 = 7.5, r = 6, s=0.6, d = 14; pair P = (d+r-0.05,h2-0.15), Q = (d-r+0.05,h2-0.15), Pp = s * P + (1-s)*(d,0), Qp = s * Q + (1-s)*(d,0); path e = ellipse((d,h2),r,1), ep = ellipse((d,h2*s+0.09),r*s,1); draw(ellipse((d,0),r*(s-0.1),0.8)); fill(ep,gray(0.8)); fill((d,0)--Pp--Qp--cycle,gray(0.8)); draw(P--(d,0)--Q^^e); draw(subpath(ep,0,reltime(ep,0.5)),linetype("4 4")); draw(subpath(ep,reltime(ep,0.5),reltime(ep,1))); draw(Qp--(d,Qp.y),Arrows(size=8)); draw((d,0)--(d,10),linetype("4 4")); draw((d,0)--(d+r*(s-0.1),0)); label("6",(d-r/4,h2*s-0.06),N,fontsize(10)); [/asy]$

$\textbf{(A) }1:1 \qquad \textbf{(B) }47:43 \qquad \textbf{(C) }2:1 \qquad \textbf{(D) }40:13 \qquad \textbf{(E) }4:1$

## Solution 1 (Organizes Information Using Tables)

Initial Scenario $$\begin{array}{cccccc} & \textbf{Base Radius} & \textbf{Height} & & \textbf{Volume} & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Narrow Cone} & 3 & h_1 & & \frac13\pi(3)^2h_1=3\pi h_1 & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Wide Cone} & 6 & h_2 & & \hspace{2mm}\frac13\pi(6)^2h_2=12\pi h_2 & \end{array}$$ By similar triangles:

For the narrow cone, the ratio of base radius to height is $\frac{3}{h_1},$ which remains constant.

For the wide cone, the ratio of base radius to height is $\frac{6}{h_2},$ which remains constant.

Equating the initial volumes gives $3\pi h_1=12\pi h_2,$ which simplifies to $\frac{h_1}{h_2}=4.$

### Solution 1.1 (Fraction Trick)

Final Scenario

Let the base radii of the narrow cone and the wide cone be $3x$ and $6y,$ respectively, where $x,y>1.$ We have the following table: $$\begin{array}{cccccc} & \textbf{Base Radius} & \textbf{Height} & & \textbf{Volume} & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Narrow Cone} & 3x & h_1x & & \frac13\pi(3x)^2\left(h_1x\right)=3\pi h_1 x^3 & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Wide Cone} & 6y & h_2y & & \hspace{2.25mm}\frac13\pi(6y)^2\left(h_2y\right)=12\pi h_2 y^3 & \end{array}$$

Equating the volumes gives $3\pi h_1 x^3=12\pi h_2 y^3,$ which simplifies to $x^3=y^3,$ or $x=y.$

Lastly, the requested ratio is $$\frac{h_1 x - h_1}{h_2 y - h_2}=\frac{h_1 (x-1)}{h_2 (y-1)}=\frac{h_1}{h_2}=\boxed{\textbf{(E) }4:1}.$$

Remarks

1. This solution uses the following fraction trick:

For unequal positive numbers $a,b,c$ and $d,$ if $\frac ab = \frac cd = k,$ then $\frac{a\pm c}{b\pm d}=k.$

We can prove this result quickly:

From $\frac ab = \frac cd = k,$ we know that $a=bk$ and $c=dk$. Therefore, $$\frac{a\pm c}{b\pm d}=\frac{bk\pm dk}{b\pm d}=\frac{\left(b\pm d\right)k}{b\pm d}=k.$$

2. The work above shows that, regardless of the shape or the volume of the solid dropped in, as long as the solid sinks to the bottom and is completely submerged without spilling any liquid, the answer will remain unchanged.

~MRENTHUSIASM

### Solution 1.2 (Bash)

Final Scenario

Let the base radii of the narrow cone and the wide cone be $r_1$ and $r_2,$ respectively.

Let the rises of the liquid levels of the narrow cone and the wide cone be $\Delta h_1$ and $\Delta h_2,$ respectively. We have the following table: $$\begin{array}{cccccc} & \textbf{Base Radius} & \textbf{Height} & & \textbf{Volume} & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Narrow Cone} & r_1 & h_1+\Delta h_1 & & \frac13\pi r_1^2(h_1+\Delta h_1) & \\ [2ex] \textbf{Wide Cone} & r_2 & h_2+\Delta h_2 & & \frac13\pi r_2^2(h_2+\Delta h_2) & \end{array}$$

By similar triangles discussed above, we have \begin{align*} \frac{3}{h_1}&=\frac{r_1}{h_1+\Delta h_1} &\implies \quad r_1&=\frac{3}{h_1}(h_1+\Delta h_1), & \hspace{10mm} (1) \\ \frac{6}{h_2}&=\frac{r_2}{h_2+\Delta h_2} &\implies \quad r_2&=\frac{6}{h_2}(h_2+\Delta h_2). & (2) \end{align*} The volume of the marble dropped in is $\frac43\pi(1)^3=\frac43\pi.$

Now, we set up an equation for the volume of the narrow cone and solve for $\Delta h_1:$ \begin{align*} \frac13\pi r_1^2(h_1+\Delta h_1) &= 3\pi h_1+\frac43\pi \\ \frac13\pi{\biggl(\phantom{ }\underbrace{\frac{3}{h_1}(h_1+\Delta h_1)}_{\text{by }(1)}\phantom{ }\biggr)}^2(h_1+\Delta h_1) &= 3\pi h_1+\frac43\pi \\ \frac{3}{h_1^2}(h_1+\Delta h_1)^3 &= 3h_1+\frac43 \\ (h_1+\Delta h_1)^3 &= h_1^3 + \frac{4h_1^2}{9} \\ \Delta h_1 &= \sqrt[3]{h_1^3 + \frac{4h_1^2}{9}}-h_1. \end{align*}

Next, we set up an equation for the volume of the wide cone and solve for $\Delta h_2:$ $$\frac13\pi r_2^2(h_2+\Delta h_2) = 12\pi h_2+\frac43\pi.$$ Using the exact same process from above (but with different numbers), we get $$\Delta h_2 = \sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-h_2.$$ Recall that $\frac{h_1}{h_2}=4.$ Therefore, the requested ratio is \begin{align*} \frac{\Delta h_1}{\Delta h_2}&=\frac{\sqrt[3]{h_1^3 + \frac{4h_1^2}{9}}-h_1}{\sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-h_2} \\ &=\frac{\sqrt[3]{(4h_2)^3 + \frac{4(4h_2)^2}{9}}-4h_2}{\sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-h_2} \\ &=\frac{\sqrt[3]{4^3\left(h_2^3 + \frac{h_2^2}{9}\right)}-4h_2}{\sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-h_2} \\ &=\frac{4\sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-4h_2}{\sqrt[3]{h_2^3+\frac{h_2^2}{9}}-h_2} \\ &=\boxed{\textbf{(E) }4:1}. \end{align*}

~MRENTHUSIASM

## Solution 2 (Quick and dirty)

The heights of the cones are not given, so suppose the heights are very large (i.e. tending towards infinity) in order to approximate the cones as cylinders with base radii 3 and 6 and infinitely large height. Then the base area of the wide cylinder is 4 times that of the narrow cylinder. Since we are dropping a ball of the same volume into each cylinder, the water level in the narrow cone/cylinder should rise $\boxed{\textbf{(E) } 4}$ times as much.

-scrabbler94

## Solution 3

Since the radius of the narrow cone is 1/2 the radius of the wider cone, the ratio of their areas is $\dfrac{1}{4}$. Therefore, the ratio of the height of the narrow cone to the height of the wide cone must be $\dfrac{4}{1}$. Note that this ratio is constant, regardless of how much water is dropped as long as it is an equal amount for both cones. See Solution 2 for another explanation.

## Video Solution (Simple and Quick)

~ Education, the Study of Everything

~ pi_is_3.14

## Video Solution by TheBeautyofMath

First-this is not the most efficient solution. I did not perceive the shortcut before filming though I suspected it.

https://youtu.be/t-EEP2V4nAE?t=231 (for AMC 10A)

https://youtu.be/cckGBU2x1zg?t=814 (for AMC 12A)

~IceMatrix

~savannahsolver