Difference between revisions of "2021 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 21"

(Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks))
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<math>\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6</math>
 
<math>\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6</math>
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== Solution 1 (Rough Approximation) ==
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Note that this solution is not recommended unless you're running out of time.
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Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math>. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> grows faster than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> (for greater values of <math>x</math>) and <math>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math> is greater than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>x<\sqrt{2}</math> and less than <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}</math> for <math>\sqrt{2}<x<n</math>, where <math>n</math> is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be <math>\text{A}</math> or <math>\text{B}</math>. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When <math>x=2</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}</math>, thus the answer cannot be <math>\text{C}</math>. Then, when <math>x=4</math>, <math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}=4^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}<64<\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}=256</math>. Therefore, <math>S<4+\sqrt{2}<6</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2 \le S < 6}</math>. ~Baolan
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== Solution 2 ==
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<math>x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}} = {\sqrt{2}}^{2^x}</math>
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<math>2^{\sqrt{2}} \log x = 2^{x} \log \sqrt{2}</math> (At this point we see by inspection that <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math> is a solution.)
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<math>\sqrt{2} \log 2 + \log \log x = x \log 2 + \log \log \sqrt{2}</math>
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<math>\sqrt{2} + \log_2 \log_2 x = x + \log_2 \log_2 \sqrt{2} = x -1.</math>
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<math>\log_2 \log_2 x = x - 1 - \sqrt{2}.</math>
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RHS is a line. LHS is a concave curve that looks like a logarithm and has <math>x</math> intercept at <math>(2,0).</math>
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There are at most two solutions, one of which is <math>\sqrt{2}.</math> But note that at <math>x=2,</math> we have <math>\log_2 \log_2 (2) = 0 > 2 - 1 - \sqrt{2},</math> meaning that the log log curve is above the line, so it must intersect the line again at a point <math>x > 2.</math> Now we check <math>x=4</math> and see that <math>\log_2 \log_2 (4) = 1 < 4 - 1 - \sqrt{2},</math> which means at <math>x=4</math> the line is already above the log log curve. Thus, the second solution lies in the interval <math>(2,4).</math>
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The answer is <math>\boxed{2 \leq S < 6}.</math>
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~ ccx09
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==Solution 3 (Graphs and Light Approximations)==
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We rewrite the right side, then take the base-<math>2</math> logarithm for both sides:
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<cmath>\begin{align*}
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x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=\left(2^\frac12\right)^{2^x} \\
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x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{\frac12\cdot2^x} \\
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x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{2^{x-1}} \\
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\log_2{\left(x^{2^{\sqrt2}}\right)}&=\log_2{\left(2^{2^{x-1}}\right)} \\
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2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}&=2^{x-1}. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (*)
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\end{align*}</cmath>
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By observations, <math>x=\sqrt2</math> is one solution. By quick sketches of <math>f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}</math> and <math>g(x)=2^{x-1},</math> we know that <math>(*)</math> has two solutions, with <math>x=\sqrt2</math> the smaller solution. We construct the following table of values:
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<cmath>\begin{array}{c|c|c|c}
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& & & \\ [-2ex]
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\boldsymbol{x} & \boldsymbol{f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}} & \boldsymbol{g(x)=2^{x-1}} & \textbf{Comparison} \\ [1ex]
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\hline
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& & & \\ [-1ex]
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1 & 0 & 1 & \\ [1ex]
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\sqrt2 & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & f\left(\sqrt2\right)=g\left(\sqrt2\right) \\ [1ex]
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2 & 2^{\sqrt2} & 2 & f(2)>g(2) \\ [1ex]
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3 & 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{3} & 2^2 & \\ [1ex]
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4 & 2^{\sqrt2+1} & 2^3 & f(4)<g(4) \\ [1ex]
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\end{array}</cmath>
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Let <math>x=t</math> be the larger solution. Since exponential functions outgrow logarithmic functions, we have <math>f(x)<g(x)</math> for all <math>x>t.</math> By the <b>Intermediate Value Theorem</b>, we get <math>t\in(2,4),</math> from which <cmath>S=\sqrt2+t\in\left(\sqrt2+2,\sqrt2+4\right).</cmath>
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Finally, approximating with <math>\sqrt2\approx1.414</math> results in <math>\boxed{\textbf{(D) }2\le S<6}.</math>
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Graphs of <math>f(x)</math> and <math>g(x)</math> in Desmos: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/xyxzsvjort
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~MRENTHUSIASM
  
 
== Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks) ==
 
== Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks) ==
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~ pi_is_3.14
 
~ pi_is_3.14
  
== Solution (Rough Approximation) ==
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==Video Solution by hippopotamus1:==
Note that this solution is not recommended.
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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjO6C_qC13U&feature=youtu.be
 
 
Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is <math>x=\sqrt{2}</math>. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since <math>\sqrt{2}^2^x</math> grows faster than <math>x^2^\sqrt{2}</math> (for greater values of <math>x</math>) and <math>\sqrt{2}^2^x</math> is greater than <math>x^2^\sqrt{2}</math> for <math>x<\sqrt{2}</math> and less than <math>x^2^\sqrt{2}</math> for <math>\sqrt{2}<x<n</math>, where <math>n</math> is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be <math>A</math> or <math>B</math>. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When <math>x=2</math>, <math>x^2^\sqrt{2}>\sqrt{2}^2^x</math>, thus the answer cannot be <math>C</math>. Then, when <math>x=4</math>, <math>x^2^\sqrt{2}=4^2^\sqrt{2}<64<\sqrt{2}^2^x=256</math>. Therefore, <math>S<4+\sqrt{2}<6</math>, so the answer is <math>\boxed{D}</math>.
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
{{AMC12 box|year=2021|ab=B|num-b=20|num-a=22}}
 
{{AMC12 box|year=2021|ab=B|num-b=20|num-a=22}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}
 
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 06:06, 22 April 2021

Problem

Let $S$ be the sum of all positive real numbers $x$ for which\[x^{2^{\sqrt2}}=\sqrt2^{2^x}.\]Which of the following statements is true?

$\textbf{(A) }S<\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(B) }S=\sqrt2 \qquad \textbf{(C) }\sqrt2<S<2\qquad \textbf{(D) }2\le S<6 \qquad \textbf{(E) }S\ge 6$

Solution 1 (Rough Approximation)

Note that this solution is not recommended unless you're running out of time.

Upon pure observation, it is obvious that one solution to this equality is $x=\sqrt{2}$. From this, we can deduce that this equality has two solutions, since $\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$ grows faster than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ (for greater values of $x$) and $\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$ is greater than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ for $x<\sqrt{2}$ and less than $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}$ for $\sqrt{2}<x<n$, where $n$ is the second solution. Thus, the answer cannot be $\text{A}$ or $\text{B}$. We then start plugging in numbers to roughly approximate the answer. When $x=2$, $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}>\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}$, thus the answer cannot be $\text{C}$. Then, when $x=4$, $x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}=4^{2^{\sqrt{2}}}<64<\sqrt{2}^{2^{x}}=256$. Therefore, $S<4+\sqrt{2}<6$, so the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2 \le S < 6}$. ~Baolan

Solution 2

$x^{2^{\sqrt{2}}} = {\sqrt{2}}^{2^x}$

$2^{\sqrt{2}} \log x = 2^{x} \log \sqrt{2}$ (At this point we see by inspection that $x=\sqrt{2}$ is a solution.)

$\sqrt{2} \log 2 + \log \log x = x \log 2 + \log \log \sqrt{2}$

$\sqrt{2} + \log_2 \log_2 x = x + \log_2 \log_2 \sqrt{2} = x -1.$

$\log_2 \log_2 x = x - 1 - \sqrt{2}.$

RHS is a line. LHS is a concave curve that looks like a logarithm and has $x$ intercept at $(2,0).$ There are at most two solutions, one of which is $\sqrt{2}.$ But note that at $x=2,$ we have $\log_2 \log_2 (2) = 0 > 2 - 1 - \sqrt{2},$ meaning that the log log curve is above the line, so it must intersect the line again at a point $x > 2.$ Now we check $x=4$ and see that $\log_2 \log_2 (4) = 1 < 4 - 1 - \sqrt{2},$ which means at $x=4$ the line is already above the log log curve. Thus, the second solution lies in the interval $(2,4).$ The answer is $\boxed{2 \leq S < 6}.$

~ ccx09

Solution 3 (Graphs and Light Approximations)

We rewrite the right side, then take the base-$2$ logarithm for both sides: \begin{align*} x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=\left(2^\frac12\right)^{2^x} \\ x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{\frac12\cdot2^x} \\ x^{2^{\sqrt2}}&=2^{2^{x-1}} \\ \log_2{\left(x^{2^{\sqrt2}}\right)}&=\log_2{\left(2^{2^{x-1}}\right)} \\ 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}&=2^{x-1}. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ (*) \end{align*} By observations, $x=\sqrt2$ is one solution. By quick sketches of $f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}$ and $g(x)=2^{x-1},$ we know that $(*)$ has two solutions, with $x=\sqrt2$ the smaller solution. We construct the following table of values: \[\begin{array}{c|c|c|c} & & & \\ [-2ex] \boldsymbol{x} & \boldsymbol{f(x)=2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{x}} & \boldsymbol{g(x)=2^{x-1}} & \textbf{Comparison} \\ [1ex] \hline & & & \\ [-1ex] 1 & 0 & 1 & \\ [1ex] \sqrt2 & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & 2^{\sqrt2-1} & f\left(\sqrt2\right)=g\left(\sqrt2\right) \\ [1ex] 2 & 2^{\sqrt2} & 2 & f(2)>g(2) \\ [1ex] 3 & 2^{\sqrt2}\log_2{3} & 2^2 & \\ [1ex] 4 & 2^{\sqrt2+1} & 2^3 & f(4)<g(4) \\ [1ex] \end{array}\] Let $x=t$ be the larger solution. Since exponential functions outgrow logarithmic functions, we have $f(x)<g(x)$ for all $x>t.$ By the Intermediate Value Theorem, we get $t\in(2,4),$ from which \[S=\sqrt2+t\in\left(\sqrt2+2,\sqrt2+4\right).\] Finally, approximating with $\sqrt2\approx1.414$ results in $\boxed{\textbf{(D) }2\le S<6}.$

Graphs of $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ in Desmos: https://www.desmos.com/calculator/xyxzsvjort

~MRENTHUSIASM

Video Solution by OmegaLearn (Logarithmic Tricks)

https://youtu.be/uCTpLB-kGR4

~ pi_is_3.14

Video Solution by hippopotamus1:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GjO6C_qC13U&feature=youtu.be

See Also

2021 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 20
Followed by
Problem 22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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