# Difference between revisions of "2021 USAJMO Problems"

## Day 1

$\textbf{Note:}$ For any geometry problem whose statement begins with an asterisk $(*)$, the first page of the solution must be a large, in-scale, clearly labeled diagram. Failure to meet this requirement will result in an automatic 1-point deduction.

### Problem 1

Let $\mathbb{N}$ denote the set of positive integers. Find all functions $f : \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ such that for positive integers $a$ and $b,$$$f(a^2 + b^2) = f(a)f(b) \text{ and } f(a^2) = f(a)^2.$$

### Problem 2

Rectangles $BCC_1B_2,$ $CAA_1C_2,$ and $ABB_1A_2$ are erected outside an acute triangle $ABC.$ Suppose that$$\angle BC_1C+\angle CA_1A+\angle AB_1B=180^{\circ}.$$Prove that lines $B_1C_2,$ $C_1A_2,$ and $A_1B_2$ are concurrent.

### Problem 3

An equilateral triangle $\Delta$ of side length $L>0$ is given. Suppose that $n$ equilateral triangles with side length 1 and with non-overlapping interiors are drawn inside $\Delta$, such that each unit equilateral triangle has sides parallel to $\Delta$, but with opposite orientation. (An example with $n=2$ is drawn below.) $[asy] draw((0,0)--(1,0)--(1/2,sqrt(3)/2)--cycle,linewidth(0.5)); filldraw((0.45,0.55)--(0.65,0.55)--(0.55,0.55-sqrt(3)/2*0.2)--cycle,gray,linewidth(0.5)); filldraw((0.54,0.3)--(0.34,0.3)--(0.44,0.3-sqrt(3)/2*0.2)--cycle,gray,linewidth(0.5)); [/asy]$ Prove that$$n \leq \frac{2}{3} L^{2}.$$

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Carina has three pins, labeled $A, B$, and $C$, respectively, located at the origin of the coordinate plane. In a move, Carina may move a pin to an adjacent lattice point at distance $1$ away. What is the least number of moves that Carina can make in order for triangle $ABC$ to have area 2021? (A lattice point is a point $(x, y)$ in the coordinate plane where $x$ and $y$ are both integers, not necessarily positive.) Carina has three pins, labeled $A, B$, and $C$, respectively, located at the origin of the coordinate plane. In a move, Carina may move a pin to an adjacent lattice point at distance $1$ away. What is the least number of moves that Carina can make in order for triangle $ABC$ to have area 2021?

(A lattice point is a point $(x, y)$ in the coordinate plane where $x$ and $y$ are both integers, not necessarily positive.)

### Problem 5

A finite set $S$ of positive integers has the property that, for each $s \in S,$ and each positive integer divisor $d$ of $s$, there exists a unique element $t \in S$ satisfying $\text{gcd}(s, t) = d$. (The elements $s$ and $t$ could be equal.) Given this information, find all possible values for the number of elements of $S$.

### Problem 6

Let $n \geq 4$ be an integer. Find all positive real solutions to the following system of $2n$ equations: \begin{align*} a_{1} &=\frac{1}{a_{2 n}}+\frac{1}{a_{2}}, & a_{2}&=a_{1}+a_{3}, \\ a_{3}&=\frac{1}{a_{2}}+\frac{1}{a_{4}}, & a_{4}&=a_{3}+a_{5}, \\ a_{5}&=\frac{1}{a_{4}}+\frac{1}{a_{6}}, & a_{6}&=a_{5}+a_{7}, \\ &\vdots \\ a_{2 n-1}&=\frac{1}{a_{2 n-2}}+\frac{1}{a_{2 n}}, & a_{2 n}&=a_{2 n-1}+a_{1} \end{align*}

 2021 USAJMO (Problems • Resources) Preceded by2020 USOJMO Followed by2022 USAJMO 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 All USAJMO Problems and Solutions