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Each entry groups the problems into sets of similar difficulty levels and suggests an approximate difficulty rating, on a scale from 1 to 10 (from easiest to hardest). Note that many of these ratings are not directly comparable, because the actual competitions have many different rules; the ratings are generally synchronized with the amount of available time, etc. Also, due to variances within a contest, ranges shown may overlap. A sample problem is provided with each entry, with a link to a solution. | Each entry groups the problems into sets of similar difficulty levels and suggests an approximate difficulty rating, on a scale from 1 to 10 (from easiest to hardest). Note that many of these ratings are not directly comparable, because the actual competitions have many different rules; the ratings are generally synchronized with the amount of available time, etc. Also, due to variances within a contest, ranges shown may overlap. A sample problem is provided with each entry, with a link to a solution. | ||
− | + | If you have some experience with mathematical competitions, we hope that you can help us make the difficulty rankings more accurate. Currently, the system is on a scale from 1 to 10 where 1 is the easiest level, e.g. [http://www.mathlinks.ro/resources.php?c=182&cid=44 early AMC problems] and 10 is hardest level, e.g. [http://www.mathlinks.ro/resources.php?c=37&cid=47 China IMO Team Selection Test.] When considering problem difficulty '''put more emphasis on problem-solving aspects and less so on technical skill requirements'''. | |
− | + | = Scale = | |
+ | All levels are estimated and refer to ''averages''. The following is a rough standard based on the USA tier system AMC 8 – AMC 10 – AMC 12 – AIME – USAMO/USAJMO - IMO, representing Middle School – Junior High – High School – Challenging High School – Olympiad levels. Other contests can be interpolated against this. | ||
− | + | Notes: | |
+ | * Multiple choice tests like AMC are rated as though they are free-response. Test-takers can use the answer choices as hints, and so correctly answer more AMC questions than Mathcounts or AIME problems of similar difficulty. | ||
+ | * Some Olympiads are taken in 2 sessions, with 2 similarly-difficult sets of questions, numbered as one set. For these the first half of the test (#1-3) is similar difficulty to the second half (#4-6). | ||
+ | '''Scale''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''1''': Problems strictly for beginner, on the easiest elementary school or middle school levels (MOEMS, MathCounts chapter, AMC 8 #1-20, AMC 10 #1-10, AMC 12 #1-5, and others that involve standard techniques introduced up to the middle school level), most traditional middle/high school word problems | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''2''': For motivated beginners, harder questions from the previous categories (AMC 8 #21-25, MathCounts State harder items, AMC 10 #11-20, AMC 12 #5-15, AIME #1), traditional middle/high school word problems with extremely complex problem solving. | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''3''': Advanced Beginner problems that require more creative thinking (MathCounts National harder items, AMC 10 #21-25, AMC 12 #15-20, AIME #1-5). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''4''': Intermediate-level problems (AMC 12 #21-25, AIME #6-9). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''5''': More difficult AIME problems (#10-12), simple proof-based Olympad-style problems (JBMO, USAJMO #1/#4). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''6''': High-leveled AIME-styled questions (#13-15). Introductory-leveled Olympiad-level questions (USAJMO #2/#5, easier USAMO #1/#4 and IMO #1/#4). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''7''': Tougher Olympiad-level questions, may require more technical knowledge (USAJMO #3/#6, easier USAMO #2/#5 and IMO #2/#5). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''8''': High-level Olympiad-level questions (easier USAMO #3/#6). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''9''': Expert Olympiad-level questions (hard USAMO #3/#6, common IMO #3/#6). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''10''': Super Expert problems, problems occasionally even unsuitable for very hard competitions (such as the IMO) due to being exceedingly tedious/long/difficult (e.g. very few students are capable of solving, even on a worldwide basis). (Hardest IMO #3/#6). | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''Examples''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | For reference, here are problems from each of the difficulty levels 1-10: | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''<1:''' Jamie counted the number of edges of a cube, Jimmy counted the numbers of corners, and Judy counted the number of faces. They then added the three numbers. What was the resulting sum? (2015 AMC 8, Problem 1) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''1:''' How many integer values of <math>x</math> satisfy <math>|x| < 3\pi</math>? (2021 AMC 10B, Problem 1) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''1.5:''' A number is called flippy if its digits alternate between two distinct digits. For example, <math>2020</math> and <math>37373</math> are flippy, but <math>3883</math> and <math>123123</math> are not. How many five-digit flippy numbers are divisible by <math>15?</math> (2020 AMC 8, Problem 19) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''2:''' For all positive integers <math>n</math>, let <math>f(n)=\log_{2002} n^2</math>. Let <math>N=f(11)+f(13)+f(14)</math>. Which of the following relations is true? (2002 AMC 12A, Problem 14) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''2.5:''' Triangle <math>ABC</math> with <math>AB=50</math> and <math>AC=10</math> has area <math>120</math>. Let <math>D</math> be the midpoint of <math>\overline{AB}</math>, and let <math>E</math> be the midpoint of <math>\overline{AC}</math>. The angle bisector of <math>\angle BAC</math> intersects <math>\overline{DE}</math> and <math>\overline{BC}</math> at <math>F</math> and <math>G</math>, respectively. What is the area of quadrilateral <math>FDBG</math>? (2018 AMC 10A, Problem 24) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''3:''' <math>A</math>, <math>B</math>, <math>C</math> are three piles of rocks. The mean weight of the rocks in <math>A</math> is <math>40</math> pounds, the mean weight of the rocks in <math>B</math> is <math>50</math> pounds, the mean weight of the rocks in the combined piles <math>A</math> and <math>B</math> is <math>43</math> pounds, and the mean weight of the rocks in the combined piles <math>A</math> and <math>C</math> is <math>44</math> pounds. What is the greatest possible integer value for the mean in pounds of the rocks in the combined piles <math>B</math> and <math>C</math>? (2013 AMC 12A, Problem 16) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''3.5:''' Find the number of integer values of <math>k</math> in the closed interval <math>[-500,500]</math> for which the equation <math>\log(kx)=2\log(x+2)</math> has exactly one real solution. (2017 AIME II, Problem 7) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''4:''' Define a sequence recursively by <math>x_0=5</math> and<cmath>x_{n+1}=\frac{x_n^2+5x_n+4}{x_n+6}</cmath>for all nonnegative integers <math>n.</math> Let <math>m</math> be the least positive integer such that<cmath>x_m\leq 4+\frac{1}{2^{20}}.</cmath>In which of the following intervals does <math>m</math> lie? | ||
+ | |||
+ | <math>\textbf{(A) } [9,26] \qquad\textbf{(B) } [27,80] \qquad\textbf{(C) } [81,242]\qquad\textbf{(D) } [243,728] \qquad\textbf{(E) } [729,\infty)</math> (2019 AMC 10B, Problem 24 and 2019 AMC 12B, Problem 22) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''4.5:''' Find, with proof, all positive integers <math>n</math> for which <math>2^n + 12^n + 2011^n</math> is a perfect square. (USAJMO 2011, Problem 1) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''5:''' Find all triples <math>(a,b,c)</math> of real numbers such that the following system holds: | ||
+ | <cmath>\begin{cases} a+b+c=\frac{1}{a}+\frac{1}{b}+\frac{1}{c} \\a^2+b^2+c^2=\frac{1}{a^2}+\frac{1}{b^2}+\frac{1}{c^2}\end{cases}</cmath> (JBMO 2020, Problem 1) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''5.5:''' Triangle <math>ABC</math> has <math>\angle BAC = 60^{\circ}</math>, <math>\angle CBA \leq 90^{\circ}</math>, <math>BC=1</math>, and <math>AC \geq AB</math>. Let <math>H</math>, <math>I</math>, and <math>O</math> be the orthocenter, incenter, and circumcenter of <math>\triangle ABC</math>, respectively. Assume that the area of pentagon <math>BCOIH</math> is the maximum possible. What is <math>\angle CBA</math>? (2011 AMC 12A, Problem 25) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''6:''' Let <math>\triangle ABC</math> be an acute triangle with circumcircle <math>\omega,</math> and let <math>H</math> be the intersection of the altitudes of <math>\triangle ABC.</math> Suppose the tangent to the circumcircle of <math>\triangle HBC</math> at <math>H</math> intersects <math>\omega</math> at points <math>X</math> and <math>Y</math> with <math>HA=3,HX=2,</math> and <math>HY=6.</math> The area of <math>\triangle ABC</math> can be written in the form <math>m\sqrt{n},</math> where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are positive integers, and <math>n</math> is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find <math>m+n.</math> (2020 AIME I, Problem 15) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''6.5:''' Rectangles <math>BCC_1B_2,</math> <math>CAA_1C_2,</math> and <math>ABB_1A_2</math> are erected outside an acute triangle <math>ABC.</math> Suppose that<cmath>\angle BC_1C+\angle CA_1A+\angle AB_1B=180^{\circ}.</cmath>Prove that lines <math>B_1C_2,</math> <math>C_1A_2,</math> and <math>A_1B_2</math> are concurrent. (2021 USAMO Problem 1, 2021 USAJMO Problem 2) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''7:''' Let <math>ABC</math> be an acute triangle with orthocenter <math>H</math>, and let <math>W</math> be a point on the side <math>BC</math>, lying strictly between <math>B</math> and <math>C</math>. The points <math>M</math> and <math>N</math> are the feet of the altitudes from <math>B</math> and <math>C</math>, respectively. Denote by <math>\omega_1</math> is the circumcircle of <math>BWN</math>, and let <math>X</math> be the point on <math>\omega_1</math> such that <math>WX</math> is a diameter of <math>\omega_1</math>. Analogously, denote by <math>\omega_2</math> the circumcircle of triangle <math>CWM</math>, and let <math>Y</math> be the point such that <math>WY</math> is a diameter of <math>\omega_2</math>. Prove that <math>X,Y</math> and <math>H</math> are collinear. (2013 IMO, Problem 4) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''7.5:''' A tournament is a directed graph for which every (unordered) pair of vertices has a single directed edge from one vertex to the other. Let us define a proper directed-edge-coloring to be an assignment of a color to every (directed) edge, so that for every pair of directed edges <math>\overrightarrow{uv}</math> and <math>\overrightarrow{vw}</math>, those two edges are in different colors. Note that it is permissible for <math>\overrightarrow{uv}</math> and <math>\overrightarrow{uw}</math> to be the same color. The directed-edge-chromatic-number of a tournament is defined to be the minimum total number of colors that can be used in order to create a proper directed-edge-coloring. For each <math>n</math>, determine the minimum directed-edge-chromatic-number over all tournaments on <math>n</math> vertices. (2015 USA TST, Problem 5) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''8:''' Let <math>\mathbb{Z}</math> be the set of integers. Find all functions <math>f : \mathbb{Z} \rightarrow \mathbb{Z}</math> such that<cmath>xf(2f(y)-x)+y^2f(2x-f(y))=\frac{f(x)^2}{x}+f(yf(y))</cmath>for all <math>x, y \in \mathbb{Z}</math> with <math>x \neq 0</math>. (2014 USAMO, Problem 2) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''8.5:''' Determine all functions <math>f:(0,\infty)\to\mathbb{R}</math> satisfying<cmath>\left(x+\frac{1}{x}\right)f(y)=f(xy)+f\left(\frac{y}{x}\right)</cmath>for all <math>x,y>0</math>. (2018 IMO Shortlist, Problem A5) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''9:''' Let <math>ABC</math> be a scalene triangle with circumcircle <math>\Omega</math> and incenter <math>I</math>. Ray <math>AI</math> meets <math>\overline{BC}</math> at <math>D</math> and meets <math>\Omega</math> again at <math>M</math>; the circle with diameter <math>\overline{DM}</math> cuts <math>\Omega</math> again at <math>K</math>. Lines <math>MK</math> and <math>BC</math> meet at <math>S</math>, and <math>N</math> is the midpoint of <math>\overline{IS}</math>. The circumcircles of <math>\triangle KID</math> and <math>\triangle MAN</math> intersect at points <math>L_1</math> and <math>L_2</math>. Prove that <math>\Omega</math> passes through the midpoint of either <math>\overline{IL_1}</math> or <math>\overline{IL_2}</math>. (2017 USAMO, Problem 3) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''9.5:''' An <i>anti-Pascal triangle</i> is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of the two numbers immediately below it. For example, the following is an anti-Pascal triangle with four rows which contains every integer from <math>1</math> to <math>10</math>. | ||
+ | <cmath>\begin{array}{ | ||
+ | c@{\hspace{4pt}}c@{\hspace{4pt}} | ||
+ | c@{\hspace{4pt}}c@{\hspace{2pt}}c@{\hspace{2pt}}c@{\hspace{4pt}}c | ||
+ | } \vspace{4pt} | ||
+ | & & & 4 & & & \\\vspace{4pt} | ||
+ | & & 2 & & 6 & & \\\vspace{4pt} | ||
+ | & 5 & & 7 & & 1 & \\\vspace{4pt} | ||
+ | 8 & & 3 & & 10 & & 9 \\\vspace{4pt} | ||
+ | \end{array}</cmath>Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with <math>2018</math> rows which contains every integer from <math>1</math> to <math>1 + 2 + 3 + \dots + 2018</math>? (2018 IMO, Problem 3) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''10:''' Prove that there exists a positive constant <math>c</math> such that the following statement is true: | ||
+ | Consider an integer <math>n > 1</math>, and a set <math>\mathcal S</math> of <math>n</math> points in the plane such that the distance between any two different points in <math>\mathcal S</math> is at least 1. It follows that there is a line <math>\ell</math> separating <math>\mathcal S</math> such that the distance from any point of <math>\mathcal S</math> to <math>\ell</math> is at least <math>cn^{-1/3}</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | (A line <math>\ell</math> separates a set of points S if some segment joining two points in <math>\mathcal S</math> crosses <math>\ell</math>.) (2020 IMO, Problem 6) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''>10:''' Let <math>P_1P_2\dotsb P_{100}</math> be a cyclic <math>100</math>-gon and let <math>P_i = P_{i+100}</math> for all <math>i</math>. Define <math>Q_i</math> as the intersection of diagonals <math>\overline{P_{i-2}P_{i+1}}</math> and <math>\overline{P_{i-1}P_{i+2}}</math> for all integers <math>i</math>. | ||
+ | |||
+ | Suppose there exists a point <math>P</math> satisfying <math>\overline{PP_i}\perp\overline{P_{i-1}P_{i+1}}</math> for all integers <math>i</math>. Prove that the points <math>Q_1,Q_2,\dots, Q_{100}</math> are concyclic. (2020 USA TST, Problem 6) | ||
+ | |||
+ | '''>10:''' Given positive integer <math>n</math>. Prove that for any integers <math>a_1,a_2,\cdots,a_n,</math> at least <math>\lceil \tfrac{n(n-6)}{19} \rceil</math> numbers from the set <math>\{ 1,2, \cdots, \tfrac{n(n-1)}{2} \}</math> cannot be represented as <math>a_i-a_j (1 \le i, j \le n)</math>. (2021 China TST, Day 1 Problem 3) | ||
+ | |||
+ | = Competitions = | ||
+ | |||
+ | ==Introductory Competitions== | ||
+ | Most middle school and first-stage high school competitions would fall under this category. Problems in these competitions are usually ranked from 1 to 3. A full list is available [https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=Category%3AIntroductory+mathematics+competitions here]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[MOEMS]] === | ||
+ | *Division E: '''1''' | ||
+ | *: ''The whole number <math>N</math> is divisible by <math>7</math>. <math>N</math> leaves a remainder of <math>1</math> when divided by <math>2,3,4,</math> or <math>5</math>. What is the smallest value that <math>N</math> can be?'' ([http://www.moems.org/sample_files/SampleE.pdf Solution]) | ||
+ | *Division M: '''1''' | ||
+ | *: ''The value of a two-digit number is <math>10</math> times more than the sum of its digits. The units digit is 1 more than twice the tens digit. Find the two-digit number.'' ([http://www.moems.org/sample_files/SampleM.pdf Solution]) | ||
=== [[AMC 8]] === | === [[AMC 8]] === | ||
− | * Problem 1 - Problem 12: '''1''' | + | * Problem 1 - Problem 12: '''1-1.25''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''The <math>\emph{harmonic mean}</math> of a set of non-zero numbers is the reciprocal of the average of the reciprocals of the numbers. What is the harmonic mean of 1, 2, and 4?'' ([[2018 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 10|Solution]]) |
− | * Problem 13 - Problem 25: '''2''' | + | * Problem 13 - Problem 25: '''1.5-2''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''How many positive factors does <math>23,232</math> have?'' ([[2018 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 18|Solution]]) |
+ | |||
+ | === [[Mathcounts]] === | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Countdown: '''1-2.''' | ||
+ | * Sprint: '''1-1.5''' (school/chapter), '''1.5-2''' (State), '''2-2.5''' (National) | ||
+ | * Target: '''1-2''' (school/chapter), '''1.5-2.5''' (State), '''2.5-3.5''' (National) | ||
=== [[AMC 10]] === | === [[AMC 10]] === | ||
− | * Problem 1 - | + | * Problem 1 - 10: '''1-2''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''A rectangular box has integer side lengths in the ratio <math>1: 3: 4</math>. Which of the following could be the volume of the box?'' ([[2016 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 5|Solution]]) |
− | * Problem | + | * Problem 11 - 20: '''2-3''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''For some positive integer <math>k</math>, the repeating base-<math>k</math> representation of the (base-ten) fraction <math>\frac{7}{51}</math> is <math>0.\overline{23}_k = 0.232323..._k</math>. What is <math>k</math>?'' ([[2019 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 18|Solution]]) |
− | * Problem 21 - 25: '''3''' | + | * Problem 21 - 25: '''3.5-4.5''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''The vertices of an equilateral triangle lie on the hyperbola <math>xy=1</math>, and a vertex of this hyperbola is the centroid of the triangle. What is the square of the area of the triangle?'' ([[2017 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 24|Solution]]) |
− | === [[ | + | ===[[CEMC|CEMC Multiple Choice Tests]]=== |
+ | This covers the CEMC Gauss, Pascal, Cayley, and Fermat tests. | ||
− | * | + | * Part A: '''1-1.5''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''How many different 3-digit whole numbers can be formed using the digits 4, 7, and 9, assuming that no digit can be repeated in a number?'' (2015 Gauss 7 Problem 10) |
− | + | * Part B: '''1-2''' | |
− | + | *: ''Two lines with slopes <math>\tfrac14</math> and <math>\tfrac54</math> intersect at <math>(1,1)</math>. What is the area of the triangle formed by these two lines and the vertical line <math>x = 5</math>?'' (2017 Cayley Problem 19) | |
− | * | + | * Part C (Gauss/Pascal): '''2-2.5''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''Suppose that <math>\tfrac{2009}{2014} + \tfrac{2019}{n} = \tfrac{a}{b}</math>, where <math>a</math>, <math>b</math>, and <math>n</math> are positive integers with <math>\tfrac{a}{b}</math> in lowest terms. What is the sum of the digits of the smallest positive integer <math>n</math> for which <math>a</math> is a multiple of 1004?'' (2014 Pascal Problem 25) |
+ | * Part C (Cayley/Fermat): '''2.5-3''' | ||
+ | *: ''Wayne has 3 green buckets, 3 red buckets, 3 blue buckets, and 3 yellow buckets. He randomly distributes 4 hockey pucks among the green buckets, with each puck equally likely to be put in each bucket. Similarly, he distributes 3 pucks among the red buckets, 2 pucks among the blue buckets, and 1 puck among the yellow buckets. Once he is ﬁnished, what is the probability that a green bucket contains more pucks than each of the other 11 buckets?'' (2018 Fermat Problem 24) | ||
− | === [[ | + | ===[[CEMC|CEMC Fryer/Galois/Hypatia]]=== |
− | * Problem 1 - | + | * Problem 1-2: '''1-2''' |
− | * | + | * Problem 3-4 (early parts): '''2-3''' |
− | + | * Problem 3-4 (later parts): '''3-5''' | |
− | * | ||
− | |||
− | |||
− | == | + | ==Problem Solving Books for Introductory Students== |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | Remark: There are many other problem books for Introductory Students that are not published by AoPS. Typically the rating on the left side is equivalent to the difficulty of the easiest review problems and the difficulty on the right side is the difficulty of the hardest challenge problems. The difficulty may vary greatly between sections of a book. | |
− | + | ===[[Prealgebra by AoPS]]=== | |
− | + | '''1-2''' | |
− | + | ===[[Introduction to Algebra by AoPS]]=== | |
+ | '''1-3.5''' | ||
+ | ===[[Introduction to Counting and Probability by AoPS]]=== | ||
+ | '''1-3.5''' | ||
+ | ===[[Introduction to Number Theory by AoPS]]=== | ||
+ | '''1-3''' | ||
+ | ===[[Introduction to Geometry by AoPS]]=== | ||
+ | '''2-5''' | ||
− | === [ | + | ==Intermediate Competitions== |
+ | This category consists of all the non-proof math competitions for the middle stages of high school. The difficulty range would normally be from 3 to 6. A full list is available [https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=Category%3AIntermediate+mathematics+competitions here]. | ||
− | + | === [[AMC 12]] === | |
− | |||
− | |||
+ | * Problem 1-10: '''1.5-2''' | ||
+ | *: ''What is the value of <cmath>\log_37\cdot\log_59\cdot\log_711\cdot\log_913\cdots\log_{21}25\cdot\log_{23}27?</cmath>'' ([[2018 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 7|Solution]]) | ||
+ | * Problem 11-20: '''2.5-3.5''' | ||
+ | *: ''An object in the plane moves from one lattice point to another. At each step, the object may move one unit to the right, one unit to the left, one unit up, or one unit down. If the object starts at the origin and takes a ten-step path, how many different points could be the final point?'' ([[2006 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 18|Solution]]) | ||
+ | * Problem 21-25: '''4.5-6''' | ||
+ | *: ''Semicircle <math>\Gamma</math> has diameter <math>\overline{AB}</math> of length <math>14</math>. Circle <math>\omega</math> lies tangent to <math>\overline{AB}</math> at a point <math>P</math> and intersects <math>\Gamma</math> at points <math>Q</math> and <math>R</math>. If <math>QR=3\sqrt{3}</math> and <math>\angle QPR=60^{\circ},</math> then the area of <math>\triangle PQR</math> equals <math>\tfrac{a\sqrt{b}}{c},</math> where <math>a</math> and <math>c</math> are relatively prime positive integers, and <math>b</math> is a positive integer not divisible by the square of any prime. What is <math>a+b+c</math>?'' ([[2021 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 24|Solution]]) | ||
− | === [[ | + | === [[AIME]] === |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | * Problem 1 - 5: '''3-3.5''' | |
− | * Problem | + | *: ''Consider the integer <cmath>N = 9 + 99 + 999 + 9999 + \cdots + \underbrace{99\ldots 99}_\text{321 digits}.</cmath>Find the sum of the digits of <math>N</math>.'' ([[2019 AIME I Problems/Problem 1|Solution]]) |
− | *: ''A | + | * Problem 6 - 9: '''4-4.5''' |
− | <math> | + | *: ''An ant makes a sequence of moves on a cube where a move consists of walking from one vertex to an adjacent vertex along an edge of the cube. Initially the ant is at a vertex of the bottom face of the cube and chooses one of the three adjacent vertices to move to as its first move. For all moves after the first move, the ant does not return to its previous vertex, but chooses to move to one of the other two adjacent vertices. All choices are selected at random so that each of the possible moves is equally likely. The probability that after exactly <math>8</math> moves that ant is at a vertex of the top face on the cube is <math>\frac{m}{n}</math>, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>m + n.</math>'' ([[2021 AIME II Problems/Problem 8|Solution]]) |
+ | * Problem 10 - 12: '''5-5.5''' | ||
+ | *: ''Triangle <math>ABC</math> has side lengths <math>AB=7,BC=8,</math> and <math>CA=9.</math> Circle <math>\omega_1</math> passes through <math>B</math> and is tangent to line <math>AC</math> at <math>A.</math> Circle <math>\omega_2</math> passes through <math>C</math> and is tangent to line <math>AB</math> at <math>A.</math> Let <math>K</math> be the intersection of circles <math>\omega_1</math> and <math>\omega_2</math> not equal to <math>A.</math> Then <math>AK=\tfrac{m}{n},</math> where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>m+n.</math>'' ([[2019 AIME II Problems/Problem 11|Solution]]) | ||
+ | * Problem 13 - 15: '''6-7''' | ||
+ | *: ''Let <cmath>P(x) = 24x^{24} + \sum_{j = 1}^{23}(24 - j)(x^{24 - j} + x^{24 + j}).</cmath> Let <math>z_{1},z_{2},\ldots,z_{r}</math> be the distinct zeros of <math>P(x),</math> and let <math>z_{k}^{2} = a_{k} + b_{k}i</math> for <math>k = 1,2,\ldots,r,</math> where <math>i = \sqrt { - 1},</math> and <math>a_{k}</math> and <math>b_{k}</math> are real numbers. Let <cmath>\sum_{k = 1}^{r}|b_{k}| = m + n\sqrt {p},</cmath> where <math>m,</math> <math>n,</math> and <math>p</math> are integers and <math>p</math> is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find <math>m + n + p.</math>.'' ([[2003 AIME II Problems/Problem 15|Solution]]) | ||
− | + | === [[ARML]] === | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | * Individuals, Problem 1: '''2''' | |
− | + | * Individuals, Problems 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9: '''3''' | |
− | + | * Individuals, Problems 6 and 8: '''4''' | |
− | + | * Individuals, Problem 10: '''5.5''' | |
− | |||
− | * Individuals, Problem 10: ''' | ||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | * Team/power, Problem 1-5: '''3.5''' | |
− | * Problem | + | * Team/power, Problem 6-10: '''5''' |
− | |||
− | |||
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− | |||
− | |||
− | + | ===[[HMMT|HMMT (November)]]=== | |
− | * Problem 4: ''' | + | * Individual Round, Problem 6-8: '''4''' |
− | *: '' | + | * Individual Round, Problem 10: '''4.5''' |
+ | * Team Round: '''4-5''' | ||
+ | * Guts: '''3.5-5.25''' | ||
− | + | ===[[CEMC|CEMC Euclid]]=== | |
− | + | * Problem 1-6: '''1-3''' | |
− | * Problem 1: ''' | + | * Problem 7-10: '''3-6''' |
− | |||
− | * Problem | ||
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− | |||
− | |||
− | === [[ | + | ===[[Purple Comet! Math Meet|Purple Comet]]=== |
− | * | + | * Problems 1-10 (MS): '''1.5-3''' |
− | * | + | * Problems 11-20 (MS): '''3-4.5''' |
− | * | + | * Problems 1-10 (HS): '''1.5-3.5''' |
+ | * Problems 11-20 (HS): '''3.5-4.75''' | ||
+ | * Problems 21-30 (HS): '''4.5-6''' | ||
+ | * Problems 18-20 (MS): '''4-4.75''' | ||
− | === | + | ===[[Lexington Math Tournament|LMT]]=== |
− | * | + | * Easy Problems: '''1-2''' |
− | + | *: ''Let trapezoid <math>ABCD</math> be such that <math>AB||CD</math>. Additionally, <math>AC = AD = 5</math>, <math>CD = 6</math>, and <math>AB = 3</math>. Find <math>BC</math>. '' | |
− | + | * Medium Problems: '''2-4''' | |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''Let <math>\triangle LMN</math> have side lengths <math>LM = 15</math>, <math>MN = 14</math>, and <math>NL = 13</math>. Let the angle bisector of <math>\angle MLN</math> meet the circumcircle of <math>\triangle LMN</math> at a point <math>T \ne L</math>. Determine the area of <math>\triangle LMT</math>. '' |
− | + | * Hard Problems: '''5-7''' | |
− | + | *: ''A magic <math>3 \times 5</math> board can toggle its cells between black and white. Define a pattern to be an assignment of black or white to each of the board’s <math>15</math> cells (so there are <math>2^{15}</math> patterns total). Every day after Day 1, at the beginning of the day, the board gets bored with its black-white pattern and makes a new one. However, the board always wants to be unique and will die if any two of its patterns are less than <math>3</math> cells different from each other. Furthermore, the board dies if it becomes all white. If the board begins with all cells black on Day 1, compute the maximum number of days it can stay alive.'' | |
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− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | * | ||
− | *: '' | ||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | ==Problem Solving Books for Intermediate Students== | |
− | |||
− | + | Remark: As stated above, there are many books for Intermediate students that have not been published by AoPS. Below is a list of intermediate books that AoPS has published and their difficulty. The left-hand number corresponds to the difficulty of the easiest review problems, while the right-hand number corresponds to the difficulty of the hardest challenge problems. | |
− | + | ===[[Intermediate Algebra by AoPS]]=== | |
− | + | '''2.5-6.5/7''', may vary across chapters | |
− | === [[ | + | ===[[Intermediate Counting & Probability by AoPS]]=== |
+ | '''3.5-7.5/8''', may vary across chapters | ||
− | + | ===[[Precalculus by AoPS]]=== | |
− | + | '''2-8''', may vary across chapters | |
− | |||
− | === [ | + | ==Beginner Olympiad Competitions== |
+ | This category consists of beginning Olympiad math competitions. Most junior and first stage Olympiads fall under this category. The range from the difficulty scale would be around 4 to 6. A full list is available [http://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=Category%3ABeginner+Olympiad+mathematics+competitions here]. | ||
− | * Problem 1 | + | === [[USAMTS]] === |
− | *: ''Find | + | USAMTS generally has a different feel to it than olympiads, and is mainly for proofwriting practice instead of olympiad practice depending on how one takes the test. USAMTS allows an entire month to solve problems, with internet resources and books being allowed. However, the ultimate gap is that it permits computer programs to be used, and that Problem 1 is not a proof problem. However, it can still be roughly put to this rating scale: |
− | + | * Problem 1-2: '''3-4''' | |
− | + | *: ''Find three isosceles triangles, no two of which are congruent, with integer sides, such that each triangle’s area is numerically equal to 6 times its perimeter.'' ([http://usamts.org/Solutions/Solution2_3_16.pdf Solution]) | |
− | * Problem | + | * Problem 3-5: '''4-6''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''Call a positive real number groovy if it can be written in the form <math>\sqrt{n} + \sqrt{n + 1}</math> for some positive integer <math>n</math>. Show that if <math>x</math> is groovy, then for any positive integer <math>r</math>, the number <math>x^r</math> is groovy as well.'' ([http://usamts.org/Solutions/Solutions_20_1.pdf Solution]) |
− | |||
− | |||
− | === [[ | + | === [[Indonesia Mathematical Olympiad|Indonesia MO]] === |
+ | * Problem 1/5: '''3.5''' | ||
+ | *: '' In a drawer, there are at most <math>2009</math> balls, some of them are white, the rest are blue, which are randomly distributed. If two balls were taken at the same time, then the probability that the balls are both blue or both white is <math>\frac12</math>. Determine the maximum amount of white balls in the drawer, such that the probability statement is true?'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h294065 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem 2/6: '''4.5''' | ||
+ | *: ''Find the lowest possible values from the function <cmath>f(x) = x^{2008} - 2x^{2007} + 3x^{2006} - 4x^{2005} + 5x^{2004} - \cdots - 2006x^3 + 2007x^2 - 2008x + 2009</cmath> for any real numbers <math>x</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h294067 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem 3/7: '''5''' | ||
+ | *: ''A pair of integers <math>(m,n)</math> is called ''good'' if <cmath>m\mid n^2 + n \ \text{and} \ n\mid m^2 + m</cmath> Given 2 positive integers <math>a,b > 1</math> which are relatively prime, prove that there exists a ''good'' pair <math>(m,n)</math> with <math>a\mid m</math> and <math>b\mid n</math>, but <math>a\nmid n</math> and <math>b\nmid m</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h294068 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem 4/8: '''6''' | ||
+ | *: ''Given an acute triangle <math>ABC</math>. The incircle of triangle <math>ABC</math> touches <math>BC,CA,AB</math> respectively at <math>D,E,F</math>. The angle bisector of <math>\angle A</math> cuts <math>DE</math> and <math>DF</math> respectively at <math>K</math> and <math>L</math>. Suppose <math>AA_1</math> is one of the altitudes of triangle <math>ABC</math>, and <math>M</math> be the midpoint of <math>BC</math>.'' | ||
− | + | ::''(a) Prove that <math>BK</math> and <math>CL</math> are perpendicular with the angle bisector of <math>\angle BAC</math>.'' | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | ::''(b) Show that <math>A_1KML</math> is a cyclic quadrilateral.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h294069 Solution]) | |
− | === [[ | + | === [[Central American Olympiad]] === |
+ | * Problem 1: '''4''' | ||
+ | *: ''Find all three-digit numbers <math>abc</math> (with <math>a \neq 0</math>) such that <math>a^{2} + b^{2} + c^{2}</math> is a divisor of 26.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h161957p903856 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem 2,4,5: '''5-6''' | ||
+ | *: ''Show that the equation <math>a^{2}b^{2} + b^{2}c^{2} + 3b^{2} - c^{2} - a^{2} = 2005</math> has no integer solutions.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h46028p291301 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem 3/6: '''6.5''' | ||
+ | *: ''Let <math>ABCD</math> be a convex quadrilateral. <math>I = AC\cap BD</math>, and <math>E</math>, <math>H</math>, <math>F</math> and <math>G</math> are points on <math>AB</math>, <math>BC</math>, <math>CD</math> and <math>DA</math> respectively, such that <math>EF \cap GH = I</math>. If <math>M = EG \cap AC</math>, <math>N = HF \cap AC</math>, show that <math>\frac {AM}{IM}\cdot \frac {IN}{CN} = \frac {IA}{IC}</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h146421p828841 Solution]) | ||
=== [[JBMO]] === | === [[JBMO]] === | ||
Line 182: | Line 281: | ||
*: ''Find all real numbers <math>a,b,c,d</math> such that | *: ''Find all real numbers <math>a,b,c,d</math> such that | ||
<cmath> \left\{\begin{array}{cc}a+b+c+d = 20,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd = 150.\end{array}\right. </cmath>'' | <cmath> \left\{\begin{array}{cc}a+b+c+d = 20,\\ ab+ac+ad+bc+bd+cd = 150.\end{array}\right. </cmath>'' | ||
− | * Problem 2: '''5''' | + | * Problem 2: '''4.5-5''' |
*: ''Let <math>ABCD</math> be a convex quadrilateral with <math>\angle DAC=\angle BDC=36^\circ</math>, <math>\angle CBD=18^\circ</math> and <math>\angle BAC=72^\circ</math>. The diagonals intersect at point <math>P</math>. Determine the measure of <math>\angle APD</math>.'' | *: ''Let <math>ABCD</math> be a convex quadrilateral with <math>\angle DAC=\angle BDC=36^\circ</math>, <math>\angle CBD=18^\circ</math> and <math>\angle BAC=72^\circ</math>. The diagonals intersect at point <math>P</math>. Determine the measure of <math>\angle APD</math>.'' | ||
* Problem 3: '''5''' | * Problem 3: '''5''' | ||
Line 189: | Line 288: | ||
*: ''A <math>4\times4</math> table is divided into <math>16</math> white unit square cells. Two cells are called neighbors if they share a common side. A '''move''' consists in choosing a cell and changing the colors of neighbors from white to black or from black to white. After exactly <math>n</math> moves all the <math>16</math> cells were black. Find all possible values of <math>n</math>.'' | *: ''A <math>4\times4</math> table is divided into <math>16</math> white unit square cells. Two cells are called neighbors if they share a common side. A '''move''' consists in choosing a cell and changing the colors of neighbors from white to black or from black to white. After exactly <math>n</math> moves all the <math>16</math> cells were black. Find all possible values of <math>n</math>.'' | ||
− | === [[ | + | ==Olympiad Competitions== |
+ | This category consists of standard Olympiad competitions, usually ones from national Olympiads. Average difficulty is from 5 to 8. A full list is available [http://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=Category%3AOlympiad+mathematics+competitions here]. | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[USAJMO]] === | ||
+ | * Problem 1/4: '''5''' | ||
+ | *: ''There are <math>a+b</math> bowls arranged in a row, numbered <math>1</math> through <math>a+b</math>, where <math>a</math> and <math>b</math> are given positive integers. Initially, each of the first <math>a</math> bowls contains an apple, and each of the last <math>b</math> bowls contains a pear.'' | ||
+ | |||
+ | ::''A legal move consists of moving an apple from bowl <math>i</math> to bowl <math>i+1</math> and a pear from bowl <math>j</math> to bowl <math>j-1</math>, provided that the difference <math>i-j</math> is even. We permit multiple fruits in the same bowl at the same time. The goal is to end up with the first <math>b</math> bowls each containing a pear and the last <math>a</math> bowls each containing an apple. Show that this is possible if and only if the product <math>ab</math> is even.'' ([[2019 USAJMO Problems/Problem 1|Solution]]) | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem 2/5: '''6-6.5''' | ||
+ | *: ''Let <math>a,b,c</math> be positive real numbers such that <math>a+b+c=4\sqrt[3]{abc}</math>. Prove that <cmath>2(ab+bc+ca)+4\min(a^2,b^2,c^2)\ge a^2+b^2+c^2.</cmath>'' ([[2018 USAJMO Problems/Problem 2|Solution]]) | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem 3/6: '''7''' | ||
+ | *: ''Two rational numbers <math>\tfrac{m}{n}</math> and <math>\tfrac{n}{m}</math> are written on a blackboard, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are relatively prime positive integers. At any point, Evan may pick two of the numbers <math>x</math> and <math>y</math> written on the board and write either their arithmetic mean <math>\tfrac{x+y}{2}</math> or their harmonic mean <math>\tfrac{2xy}{x+y}</math> on the board as well. Find all pairs <math>(m,n)</math> such that Evan can write <math>1</math> on the board in finitely many steps.'' ([[2019 USAJMO Problems/Problem 6|Solution]]) | ||
+ | |||
+ | ===[[HMMT|HMMT (February)]]=== | ||
+ | * Individual Round, Problem 1-5: '''5''' | ||
+ | * Individual Round, Problem 6-10: '''5.5-6''' | ||
+ | * Team Round: '''7.5''' | ||
+ | * HMIC: '''8''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[Canadian MO]] === | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem 1: '''5.5''' | ||
+ | * Problem 2: '''6''' | ||
+ | * Problem 3: '''6.5''' | ||
+ | * Problem 4: '''7-7.5''' | ||
+ | * Problem 5: '''7.5-8''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | === Austrian MO === | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Regional Competition for Advanced Students, Problems 1-4: '''5''' | ||
+ | * Federal Competition for Advanced Students, Part 1. Problems 1-4: '''6''' | ||
+ | * Federal Competition for Advanced Students, Part 2, Problems 1-6: '''7''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[Iberoamerican Math Olympiad]] === | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem 1/4: '''5.5''' | ||
+ | * Problem 2/5: '''6.5''' | ||
+ | * Problem 3/6: '''7.5''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[APMO]] === | ||
+ | *Problem 1: '''6''' | ||
+ | *Problem 2: '''7''' | ||
+ | *Problem 3: '''7''' | ||
+ | *Problem 4: '''7.5''' | ||
+ | *Problem 5: '''8.5''' | ||
− | === | + | === Balkan MO === |
− | * Problem 1- | + | * Problem 1: '''6''' |
− | * Problem | + | *: '' Solve the equation <math>3^x - 5^y = z^2</math> in positive integers. '' |
− | * Problem 7 | + | * Problem 2: '''6.5''' |
− | * | + | *: '' Let <math>MN</math> be a line parallel to the side <math>BC</math> of a triangle <math>ABC</math>, with <math>M</math> on the side <math>AB</math> and <math>N</math> on the side <math>AC</math>. The lines <math>BN</math> and <math>CM</math> meet at point <math>P</math>. The circumcircles of triangles <math>BMP</math> and <math>CNP</math> meet at two distinct points <math>P</math> and <math>Q</math>. Prove that <math>\angle BAQ = \angle CAP</math>. '' |
+ | * Problem 3: '''7.5''' | ||
+ | *: '' A <math>9 \times 12</math> rectangle is partitioned into unit squares. The centers of all the unit squares, except for the four corner squares and eight squares sharing a common side with one of them, are coloured red. Is it possible to label these red centres <math>C_1,C_2...,C_{96}</math> in such way that the following to conditions are both fulfilled'' | ||
− | + | ::<math>(\rm i)</math> ''the distances <math>C_1C_2,...C_{95}C_{96}, C_{96}C_{1}</math> are all equal to <math>\sqrt {13}</math>'' | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | = | + | ::<math>(\rm ii)</math> ''the closed broken line <math>C_1C_2...C_{96}C_1</math> has a centre of symmetry?'' |
+ | * Problem 4: '''8''' | ||
+ | *: '' Denote by <math>S</math> the set of all positive integers. Find all functions <math>f: S \rightarrow S</math> such that'' <cmath>f \bigg(f^2(m) + 2f^2(n)\bigg) = m^2 + 2 n^2\text{ for all }m,n \in S.</cmath> | ||
− | + | ==Hard Olympiad Competitions== | |
− | + | This category consists of harder Olympiad contests. Difficulty is usually from 7 to 10. A full list is available [https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=Special%3ASearch&search=Category%3AHard+Olympiad+mathematics+competitions here]. | |
− | |||
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− | |||
− | |||
=== [[USAMO]] === | === [[USAMO]] === | ||
− | + | * Problem 1/4: '''6-7''' | |
− | * Problem 1/4: '''7''' | ||
*: ''Let <math>\mathcal{P}</math> be a convex polygon with <math>n</math> sides, <math>n\ge3</math>. Any set of <math>n - 3</math> diagonals of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> that do not intersect in the interior of the polygon determine a ''triangulation'' of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> into <math>n - 2</math> triangles. If <math>\mathcal{P}</math> is regular and there is a triangulation of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> consisting of only isosceles triangles, find all the possible values of <math>n</math>.'' ([[2008 USAMO Problems/Problem 4|Solution]]) | *: ''Let <math>\mathcal{P}</math> be a convex polygon with <math>n</math> sides, <math>n\ge3</math>. Any set of <math>n - 3</math> diagonals of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> that do not intersect in the interior of the polygon determine a ''triangulation'' of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> into <math>n - 2</math> triangles. If <math>\mathcal{P}</math> is regular and there is a triangulation of <math>\mathcal{P}</math> consisting of only isosceles triangles, find all the possible values of <math>n</math>.'' ([[2008 USAMO Problems/Problem 4|Solution]]) | ||
− | * Problem 2/5: '''8''' | + | * Problem 2/5: '''7-8''' |
*: ''Three nonnegative real numbers <math>r_1</math>, <math>r_2</math>, <math>r_3</math> are written on a blackboard. These numbers have the property that there exist integers <math>a_1</math>, <math>a_2</math>, <math>a_3</math>, not all zero, satisfying <math>a_1r_1 + a_2r_2 + a_3r_3 = 0</math>. We are permitted to perform the following operation: find two numbers <math>x</math>, <math>y</math> on the blackboard with <math>x \le y</math>, then erase <math>y</math> and write <math>y - x</math> in its place. Prove that after a finite number of such operations, we can end up with at least one <math>0</math> on the blackboard.'' ([[2008 USAMO Problems/Problem 5|Solution]]) | *: ''Three nonnegative real numbers <math>r_1</math>, <math>r_2</math>, <math>r_3</math> are written on a blackboard. These numbers have the property that there exist integers <math>a_1</math>, <math>a_2</math>, <math>a_3</math>, not all zero, satisfying <math>a_1r_1 + a_2r_2 + a_3r_3 = 0</math>. We are permitted to perform the following operation: find two numbers <math>x</math>, <math>y</math> on the blackboard with <math>x \le y</math>, then erase <math>y</math> and write <math>y - x</math> in its place. Prove that after a finite number of such operations, we can end up with at least one <math>0</math> on the blackboard.'' ([[2008 USAMO Problems/Problem 5|Solution]]) | ||
− | * Problem 3/6: '''8 | + | * Problem 3/6: '''8-9''' |
*: ''Prove that any monic polynomial (a polynomial with leading coefficient 1) of degree <math>n </math> with real coefficients is the average of two monic polynomials of degree <math>n </math> with <math>n </math> real roots.'' ([[2002 USAMO Problems/Problem 3|Solution]]) | *: ''Prove that any monic polynomial (a polynomial with leading coefficient 1) of degree <math>n </math> with real coefficients is the average of two monic polynomials of degree <math>n </math> with <math>n </math> real roots.'' ([[2002 USAMO Problems/Problem 3|Solution]]) | ||
− | === [[ | + | === [[USA TST]] === |
+ | |||
+ | |||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem 1/4/7: '''6.5-7''' | ||
+ | * Problem 2/5/8: '''7.5-8''' | ||
+ | * Problem 3/6/9: '''8.5-9''' | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[Putnam]] === | ||
+ | |||
+ | * Problem A/B,1-2: '''7''' | ||
+ | *: ''Find the least possible area of a concave set in the 7-D plane that intersects both branches of the hyperparabola <math>xyz = 1</math> and both branches of the hyperbola <math>xwy = - 1.</math> (A set <math>S</math> in the plane is called ''convex'' if for any two points in <math>S</math> the line segment connecting them is contained in <math>S.</math>)'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h177227p978383 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem A/B,3-4: '''8''' | ||
+ | *: ''Let <math>H</math> be an <math>n\times n</math> matrix all of whose entries are <math>\pm1</math> and whose rows are mutually orthogonal. Suppose <math>H</math> has an <math>a\times b</math> submatrix whose entries are all <math>1.</math> Show that <math>ab\le n</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h64435p383280 Solution]) | ||
+ | * Problem A/B,5-6: '''9''' | ||
+ | *: ''For any <math>a > 0</math>, define the set <math>S(a) = \{[an]|n = 1,2,3,...\}</math>. Show that there are no three positive reals <math>a,b,c</math> such that <math>S(a)\cap S(b) = S(b)\cap S(c) = S(c)\cap S(a) = \emptyset,S(a)\cup S(b)\cup S(c) = \{1,2,3,...\}</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c7h127810p725238 Solution]) | ||
+ | |||
+ | === [[China TST]] (hardest problems)=== | ||
− | * Problem 1 | + | * Problem 1/4: '''8-8.5''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''Given an integer <math>m,</math> prove that there exist odd integers <math>a,b</math> and a positive integer <math>k</math> such that <cmath>2m=a^{19}+b^{99}+k*2^{1000}.</cmath>'' |
− | * Problem | + | * Problem 2/5: '''9''' |
− | *: '' | + | *: ''Given a positive integer <math>n=1</math> and real numbers <math>a_1 < a_2 < \ldots < a_n,</math> such that <math>\dfrac{1}{a_1} + \dfrac{1}{a_2} + \ldots + \dfrac{1}{a_n} \le 1,</math> prove that for any positive real number <math>x,</math> <cmath>\left(\dfrac{1}{a_1^2+x} + \dfrac{1}{a_2^2+x} + \ldots + \dfrac{1}{a_n^2+x}\right)^2 \ge \dfrac{1}{2a_1(a_1-1)+2x}.</cmath>'' |
+ | * Problem 3/6: '''9.5-10''' | ||
+ | *: ''Let <math>n>1</math> be an integer and let <math>a_0,a_1,\ldots,a_n</math> be non-negative real numbers. Define <math>S_k=\sum_{i=0}^k \binom{k}{i}a_i</math> for <math>k=0,1,\ldots,n</math>. Prove that<cmath>\frac{1}{n} \sum_{k=0}^{n-1} S_k^2-\frac{1}{n^2}\left(\sum_{k=0}^{n} S_k\right)^2\le \frac{4}{45} (S_n-S_0)^2.</cmath>'' | ||
− | === [[ | + | === [[IMO]] === |
− | + | * Problem 1/4: '''5.5-7''' | |
+ | *: ''Let <math>\Gamma</math> be the circumcircle of acute triangle <math>ABC</math>. Points <math>D</math> and <math>E</math> are on segments <math>AB</math> and <math>AC</math> respectively such that <math>AD = AE</math>. The perpendicular bisectors of <math>BD</math> and <math>CE</math> intersect minor arcs <math>AB</math> and <math>AC</math> of <math>\Gamma</math> at points <math>F</math> and <math>G</math> respectively. Prove that lines <math>DE</math> and <math>FG</math> are either parallel or they are the same line.'' ([[2018 IMO Problems/Problem 1|Solution]]) | ||
− | * Problem | + | * Problem 2/5: '''7-8''' |
− | * | + | *: ''Let <math>P(x)</math> be a polynomial of degree <math>n>1</math> with integer coefficients, and let <math>k</math> be a positive integer. Consider the polynomial <math>Q(x) = P( P ( \ldots P(P(x)) \ldots ))</math>, where <math>P</math> occurs <math>k</math> times. Prove that there are at most <math>n</math> integers <math>t</math> such that <math>Q(t)=t</math>.'' ([[2006 IMO Problems/Problem 5|Solution]]) |
− | |||
− | + | * Problem 3/6: '''9-10''' | |
− | + | *: ''Assign to each side <math>b</math> of a convex polygon <math>P</math> the maximum area of a triangle that has <math>b</math> as a side and is contained in <math>P</math>. Show that the sum of the areas assigned to the sides of <math>P</math> is at least twice the area of <math>P</math>.'' ([https://artofproblemsolving.com/community/c6h101488p572824 Solution]) | |
− | + | === [[IMO Shortlist]] === | |
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | |||
− | + | * Problem 1-2: '''5.5-7''' | |
− | * | + | * Problem 3-4: '''7-8''' |
+ | * Problem 5+: '''8-10''' | ||
[[Category:Mathematics competitions]] | [[Category:Mathematics competitions]] |
Latest revision as of 23:16, 15 March 2023
This page contains an approximate estimation of the difficulty level of various competitions. It is designed with the intention of introducing contests of similar difficulty levels (but possibly different styles of problems) that readers may like to try to gain more experience.
Each entry groups the problems into sets of similar difficulty levels and suggests an approximate difficulty rating, on a scale from 1 to 10 (from easiest to hardest). Note that many of these ratings are not directly comparable, because the actual competitions have many different rules; the ratings are generally synchronized with the amount of available time, etc. Also, due to variances within a contest, ranges shown may overlap. A sample problem is provided with each entry, with a link to a solution.
If you have some experience with mathematical competitions, we hope that you can help us make the difficulty rankings more accurate. Currently, the system is on a scale from 1 to 10 where 1 is the easiest level, e.g. early AMC problems and 10 is hardest level, e.g. China IMO Team Selection Test. When considering problem difficulty put more emphasis on problem-solving aspects and less so on technical skill requirements.
Contents
Scale
All levels are estimated and refer to averages. The following is a rough standard based on the USA tier system AMC 8 – AMC 10 – AMC 12 – AIME – USAMO/USAJMO - IMO, representing Middle School – Junior High – High School – Challenging High School – Olympiad levels. Other contests can be interpolated against this.
Notes:
- Multiple choice tests like AMC are rated as though they are free-response. Test-takers can use the answer choices as hints, and so correctly answer more AMC questions than Mathcounts or AIME problems of similar difficulty.
- Some Olympiads are taken in 2 sessions, with 2 similarly-difficult sets of questions, numbered as one set. For these the first half of the test (#1-3) is similar difficulty to the second half (#4-6).
Scale
1: Problems strictly for beginner, on the easiest elementary school or middle school levels (MOEMS, MathCounts chapter, AMC 8 #1-20, AMC 10 #1-10, AMC 12 #1-5, and others that involve standard techniques introduced up to the middle school level), most traditional middle/high school word problems
2: For motivated beginners, harder questions from the previous categories (AMC 8 #21-25, MathCounts State harder items, AMC 10 #11-20, AMC 12 #5-15, AIME #1), traditional middle/high school word problems with extremely complex problem solving.
3: Advanced Beginner problems that require more creative thinking (MathCounts National harder items, AMC 10 #21-25, AMC 12 #15-20, AIME #1-5).
4: Intermediate-level problems (AMC 12 #21-25, AIME #6-9).
5: More difficult AIME problems (#10-12), simple proof-based Olympad-style problems (JBMO, USAJMO #1/#4).
6: High-leveled AIME-styled questions (#13-15). Introductory-leveled Olympiad-level questions (USAJMO #2/#5, easier USAMO #1/#4 and IMO #1/#4).
7: Tougher Olympiad-level questions, may require more technical knowledge (USAJMO #3/#6, easier USAMO #2/#5 and IMO #2/#5).
8: High-level Olympiad-level questions (easier USAMO #3/#6).
9: Expert Olympiad-level questions (hard USAMO #3/#6, common IMO #3/#6).
10: Super Expert problems, problems occasionally even unsuitable for very hard competitions (such as the IMO) due to being exceedingly tedious/long/difficult (e.g. very few students are capable of solving, even on a worldwide basis). (Hardest IMO #3/#6).
Examples
For reference, here are problems from each of the difficulty levels 1-10:
<1: Jamie counted the number of edges of a cube, Jimmy counted the numbers of corners, and Judy counted the number of faces. They then added the three numbers. What was the resulting sum? (2015 AMC 8, Problem 1)
1: How many integer values of satisfy ? (2021 AMC 10B, Problem 1)
1.5: A number is called flippy if its digits alternate between two distinct digits. For example, and are flippy, but and are not. How many five-digit flippy numbers are divisible by (2020 AMC 8, Problem 19)
2: For all positive integers , let . Let . Which of the following relations is true? (2002 AMC 12A, Problem 14)
2.5: Triangle with and has area . Let be the midpoint of , and let be the midpoint of . The angle bisector of intersects and at and , respectively. What is the area of quadrilateral ? (2018 AMC 10A, Problem 24)
3: , , are three piles of rocks. The mean weight of the rocks in is pounds, the mean weight of the rocks in is pounds, the mean weight of the rocks in the combined piles and is pounds, and the mean weight of the rocks in the combined piles and is pounds. What is the greatest possible integer value for the mean in pounds of the rocks in the combined piles and ? (2013 AMC 12A, Problem 16)
3.5: Find the number of integer values of in the closed interval for which the equation has exactly one real solution. (2017 AIME II, Problem 7)
4: Define a sequence recursively by andfor all nonnegative integers Let be the least positive integer such thatIn which of the following intervals does lie?
(2019 AMC 10B, Problem 24 and 2019 AMC 12B, Problem 22)
4.5: Find, with proof, all positive integers for which is a perfect square. (USAJMO 2011, Problem 1)
5: Find all triples of real numbers such that the following system holds: (JBMO 2020, Problem 1)
5.5: Triangle has , , , and . Let , , and be the orthocenter, incenter, and circumcenter of , respectively. Assume that the area of pentagon is the maximum possible. What is ? (2011 AMC 12A, Problem 25)
6: Let be an acute triangle with circumcircle and let be the intersection of the altitudes of Suppose the tangent to the circumcircle of at intersects at points and with and The area of can be written in the form where and are positive integers, and is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find (2020 AIME I, Problem 15)
6.5: Rectangles and are erected outside an acute triangle Suppose thatProve that lines and are concurrent. (2021 USAMO Problem 1, 2021 USAJMO Problem 2)
7: Let be an acute triangle with orthocenter , and let be a point on the side , lying strictly between and . The points and are the feet of the altitudes from and , respectively. Denote by is the circumcircle of , and let be the point on such that is a diameter of . Analogously, denote by the circumcircle of triangle , and let be the point such that is a diameter of . Prove that and are collinear. (2013 IMO, Problem 4)
7.5: A tournament is a directed graph for which every (unordered) pair of vertices has a single directed edge from one vertex to the other. Let us define a proper directed-edge-coloring to be an assignment of a color to every (directed) edge, so that for every pair of directed edges and , those two edges are in different colors. Note that it is permissible for and to be the same color. The directed-edge-chromatic-number of a tournament is defined to be the minimum total number of colors that can be used in order to create a proper directed-edge-coloring. For each , determine the minimum directed-edge-chromatic-number over all tournaments on vertices. (2015 USA TST, Problem 5)
8: Let be the set of integers. Find all functions such thatfor all with . (2014 USAMO, Problem 2)
8.5: Determine all functions satisfyingfor all . (2018 IMO Shortlist, Problem A5)
9: Let be a scalene triangle with circumcircle and incenter . Ray meets at and meets again at ; the circle with diameter cuts again at . Lines and meet at , and is the midpoint of . The circumcircles of and intersect at points and . Prove that passes through the midpoint of either or . (2017 USAMO, Problem 3)
9.5: An anti-Pascal triangle is an equilateral triangular array of numbers such that, except for the numbers in the bottom row, each number is the absolute value of the difference of the two numbers immediately below it. For example, the following is an anti-Pascal triangle with four rows which contains every integer from to . Does there exist an anti-Pascal triangle with rows which contains every integer from to ? (2018 IMO, Problem 3)
10: Prove that there exists a positive constant such that the following statement is true: Consider an integer , and a set of points in the plane such that the distance between any two different points in is at least 1. It follows that there is a line separating such that the distance from any point of to is at least .
(A line separates a set of points S if some segment joining two points in crosses .) (2020 IMO, Problem 6)
>10: Let be a cyclic -gon and let for all . Define as the intersection of diagonals and for all integers .
Suppose there exists a point satisfying for all integers . Prove that the points are concyclic. (2020 USA TST, Problem 6)
>10: Given positive integer . Prove that for any integers at least numbers from the set cannot be represented as . (2021 China TST, Day 1 Problem 3)
Competitions
Introductory Competitions
Most middle school and first-stage high school competitions would fall under this category. Problems in these competitions are usually ranked from 1 to 3. A full list is available here.
MOEMS
- Division E: 1
- The whole number is divisible by . leaves a remainder of when divided by or . What is the smallest value that can be? (Solution)
- Division M: 1
- The value of a two-digit number is times more than the sum of its digits. The units digit is 1 more than twice the tens digit. Find the two-digit number. (Solution)
AMC 8
- Problem 1 - Problem 12: 1-1.25
- The of a set of non-zero numbers is the reciprocal of the average of the reciprocals of the numbers. What is the harmonic mean of 1, 2, and 4? (Solution)
- Problem 13 - Problem 25: 1.5-2
- How many positive factors does have? (Solution)
Mathcounts
- Countdown: 1-2.
- Sprint: 1-1.5 (school/chapter), 1.5-2 (State), 2-2.5 (National)
- Target: 1-2 (school/chapter), 1.5-2.5 (State), 2.5-3.5 (National)
AMC 10
- Problem 1 - 10: 1-2
- A rectangular box has integer side lengths in the ratio . Which of the following could be the volume of the box? (Solution)
- Problem 11 - 20: 2-3
- For some positive integer , the repeating base- representation of the (base-ten) fraction is . What is ? (Solution)
- Problem 21 - 25: 3.5-4.5
- The vertices of an equilateral triangle lie on the hyperbola , and a vertex of this hyperbola is the centroid of the triangle. What is the square of the area of the triangle? (Solution)
CEMC Multiple Choice Tests
This covers the CEMC Gauss, Pascal, Cayley, and Fermat tests.
- Part A: 1-1.5
- How many different 3-digit whole numbers can be formed using the digits 4, 7, and 9, assuming that no digit can be repeated in a number? (2015 Gauss 7 Problem 10)
- Part B: 1-2
- Two lines with slopes and intersect at . What is the area of the triangle formed by these two lines and the vertical line ? (2017 Cayley Problem 19)
- Part C (Gauss/Pascal): 2-2.5
- Suppose that , where , , and are positive integers with in lowest terms. What is the sum of the digits of the smallest positive integer for which is a multiple of 1004? (2014 Pascal Problem 25)
- Part C (Cayley/Fermat): 2.5-3
- Wayne has 3 green buckets, 3 red buckets, 3 blue buckets, and 3 yellow buckets. He randomly distributes 4 hockey pucks among the green buckets, with each puck equally likely to be put in each bucket. Similarly, he distributes 3 pucks among the red buckets, 2 pucks among the blue buckets, and 1 puck among the yellow buckets. Once he is ﬁnished, what is the probability that a green bucket contains more pucks than each of the other 11 buckets? (2018 Fermat Problem 24)
CEMC Fryer/Galois/Hypatia
- Problem 1-2: 1-2
- Problem 3-4 (early parts): 2-3
- Problem 3-4 (later parts): 3-5
Problem Solving Books for Introductory Students
Remark: There are many other problem books for Introductory Students that are not published by AoPS. Typically the rating on the left side is equivalent to the difficulty of the easiest review problems and the difficulty on the right side is the difficulty of the hardest challenge problems. The difficulty may vary greatly between sections of a book.
Prealgebra by AoPS
1-2
Introduction to Algebra by AoPS
1-3.5
Introduction to Counting and Probability by AoPS
1-3.5
Introduction to Number Theory by AoPS
1-3
Introduction to Geometry by AoPS
2-5
Intermediate Competitions
This category consists of all the non-proof math competitions for the middle stages of high school. The difficulty range would normally be from 3 to 6. A full list is available here.
AMC 12
- Problem 1-10: 1.5-2
- What is the value of (Solution)
- Problem 11-20: 2.5-3.5
- An object in the plane moves from one lattice point to another. At each step, the object may move one unit to the right, one unit to the left, one unit up, or one unit down. If the object starts at the origin and takes a ten-step path, how many different points could be the final point? (Solution)
- Problem 21-25: 4.5-6
- Semicircle has diameter of length . Circle lies tangent to at a point and intersects at points and . If and then the area of equals where and are relatively prime positive integers, and is a positive integer not divisible by the square of any prime. What is ? (Solution)
AIME
- Problem 1 - 5: 3-3.5
- Consider the integer Find the sum of the digits of . (Solution)
- Problem 6 - 9: 4-4.5
- An ant makes a sequence of moves on a cube where a move consists of walking from one vertex to an adjacent vertex along an edge of the cube. Initially the ant is at a vertex of the bottom face of the cube and chooses one of the three adjacent vertices to move to as its first move. For all moves after the first move, the ant does not return to its previous vertex, but chooses to move to one of the other two adjacent vertices. All choices are selected at random so that each of the possible moves is equally likely. The probability that after exactly moves that ant is at a vertex of the top face on the cube is , where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find (Solution)
- Problem 10 - 12: 5-5.5
- Triangle has side lengths and Circle passes through and is tangent to line at Circle passes through and is tangent to line at Let be the intersection of circles and not equal to Then where and are relatively prime positive integers. Find (Solution)
- Problem 13 - 15: 6-7
- Let Let be the distinct zeros of and let for where and and are real numbers. Let where and are integers and is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find . (Solution)
ARML
- Individuals, Problem 1: 2
- Individuals, Problems 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, and 9: 3
- Individuals, Problems 6 and 8: 4
- Individuals, Problem 10: 5.5
- Team/power, Problem 1-5: 3.5
- Team/power, Problem 6-10: 5
HMMT (November)
- Individual Round, Problem 6-8: 4
- Individual Round, Problem 10: 4.5
- Team Round: 4-5
- Guts: 3.5-5.25
CEMC Euclid
- Problem 1-6: 1-3
- Problem 7-10: 3-6
Purple Comet
- Problems 1-10 (MS): 1.5-3
- Problems 11-20 (MS): 3-4.5
- Problems 1-10 (HS): 1.5-3.5
- Problems 11-20 (HS): 3.5-4.75
- Problems 21-30 (HS): 4.5-6
- Problems 18-20 (MS): 4-4.75
LMT
- Easy Problems: 1-2
- Let trapezoid be such that . Additionally, , , and . Find .
- Medium Problems: 2-4
- Let have side lengths , , and . Let the angle bisector of meet the circumcircle of at a point . Determine the area of .
- Hard Problems: 5-7
- A magic board can toggle its cells between black and white. Define a pattern to be an assignment of black or white to each of the board’s cells (so there are patterns total). Every day after Day 1, at the beginning of the day, the board gets bored with its black-white pattern and makes a new one. However, the board always wants to be unique and will die if any two of its patterns are less than cells different from each other. Furthermore, the board dies if it becomes all white. If the board begins with all cells black on Day 1, compute the maximum number of days it can stay alive.
Problem Solving Books for Intermediate Students
Remark: As stated above, there are many books for Intermediate students that have not been published by AoPS. Below is a list of intermediate books that AoPS has published and their difficulty. The left-hand number corresponds to the difficulty of the easiest review problems, while the right-hand number corresponds to the difficulty of the hardest challenge problems.
Intermediate Algebra by AoPS
2.5-6.5/7, may vary across chapters
Intermediate Counting & Probability by AoPS
3.5-7.5/8, may vary across chapters
Precalculus by AoPS
2-8, may vary across chapters
Beginner Olympiad Competitions
This category consists of beginning Olympiad math competitions. Most junior and first stage Olympiads fall under this category. The range from the difficulty scale would be around 4 to 6. A full list is available here.
USAMTS
USAMTS generally has a different feel to it than olympiads, and is mainly for proofwriting practice instead of olympiad practice depending on how one takes the test. USAMTS allows an entire month to solve problems, with internet resources and books being allowed. However, the ultimate gap is that it permits computer programs to be used, and that Problem 1 is not a proof problem. However, it can still be roughly put to this rating scale:
- Problem 1-2: 3-4
- Find three isosceles triangles, no two of which are congruent, with integer sides, such that each triangle’s area is numerically equal to 6 times its perimeter. (Solution)
- Problem 3-5: 4-6
- Call a positive real number groovy if it can be written in the form for some positive integer . Show that if is groovy, then for any positive integer , the number is groovy as well. (Solution)
Indonesia MO
- Problem 1/5: 3.5
- In a drawer, there are at most balls, some of them are white, the rest are blue, which are randomly distributed. If two balls were taken at the same time, then the probability that the balls are both blue or both white is . Determine the maximum amount of white balls in the drawer, such that the probability statement is true? (Solution)
- Problem 2/6: 4.5
- Find the lowest possible values from the function for any real numbers . (Solution)
- Problem 3/7: 5
- A pair of integers is called good if Given 2 positive integers which are relatively prime, prove that there exists a good pair with and , but and . (Solution)
- Problem 4/8: 6
- Given an acute triangle . The incircle of triangle touches respectively at . The angle bisector of cuts and respectively at and . Suppose is one of the altitudes of triangle , and be the midpoint of .
- (a) Prove that and are perpendicular with the angle bisector of .
- (b) Show that is a cyclic quadrilateral. (Solution)
Central American Olympiad
- Problem 1: 4
- Find all three-digit numbers (with ) such that is a divisor of 26. (Solution)
- Problem 2,4,5: 5-6
- Show that the equation has no integer solutions. (Solution)
- Problem 3/6: 6.5
- Let be a convex quadrilateral. , and , , and are points on , , and respectively, such that . If , , show that . (Solution)
JBMO
- Problem 1: 4
- Find all real numbers such that
- Problem 2: 4.5-5
- Let be a convex quadrilateral with , and . The diagonals intersect at point . Determine the measure of .
- Problem 3: 5
- Find all prime numbers , such that .
- Problem 4: 6
- A table is divided into white unit square cells. Two cells are called neighbors if they share a common side. A move consists in choosing a cell and changing the colors of neighbors from white to black or from black to white. After exactly moves all the cells were black. Find all possible values of .
Olympiad Competitions
This category consists of standard Olympiad competitions, usually ones from national Olympiads. Average difficulty is from 5 to 8. A full list is available here.
USAJMO
- Problem 1/4: 5
- There are bowls arranged in a row, numbered through , where and are given positive integers. Initially, each of the first bowls contains an apple, and each of the last bowls contains a pear.
- A legal move consists of moving an apple from bowl to bowl and a pear from bowl to bowl , provided that the difference is even. We permit multiple fruits in the same bowl at the same time. The goal is to end up with the first bowls each containing a pear and the last bowls each containing an apple. Show that this is possible if and only if the product is even. (Solution)
- Problem 2/5: 6-6.5
- Let be positive real numbers such that . Prove that (Solution)
- Problem 3/6: 7
- Two rational numbers and are written on a blackboard, where and are relatively prime positive integers. At any point, Evan may pick two of the numbers and written on the board and write either their arithmetic mean or their harmonic mean on the board as well. Find all pairs such that Evan can write on the board in finitely many steps. (Solution)
HMMT (February)
- Individual Round, Problem 1-5: 5
- Individual Round, Problem 6-10: 5.5-6
- Team Round: 7.5
- HMIC: 8
Canadian MO
- Problem 1: 5.5
- Problem 2: 6
- Problem 3: 6.5
- Problem 4: 7-7.5
- Problem 5: 7.5-8
Austrian MO
- Regional Competition for Advanced Students, Problems 1-4: 5
- Federal Competition for Advanced Students, Part 1. Problems 1-4: 6
- Federal Competition for Advanced Students, Part 2, Problems 1-6: 7
Iberoamerican Math Olympiad
- Problem 1/4: 5.5
- Problem 2/5: 6.5
- Problem 3/6: 7.5
APMO
- Problem 1: 6
- Problem 2: 7
- Problem 3: 7
- Problem 4: 7.5
- Problem 5: 8.5
Balkan MO
- Problem 1: 6
- Solve the equation in positive integers.
- Problem 2: 6.5
- Let be a line parallel to the side of a triangle , with on the side and on the side . The lines and meet at point . The circumcircles of triangles and meet at two distinct points and . Prove that .
- Problem 3: 7.5
- A rectangle is partitioned into unit squares. The centers of all the unit squares, except for the four corner squares and eight squares sharing a common side with one of them, are coloured red. Is it possible to label these red centres in such way that the following to conditions are both fulfilled
- the distances are all equal to
- the closed broken line has a centre of symmetry?
- Problem 4: 8
- Denote by the set of all positive integers. Find all functions such that
Hard Olympiad Competitions
This category consists of harder Olympiad contests. Difficulty is usually from 7 to 10. A full list is available here.
USAMO
- Problem 1/4: 6-7
- Let be a convex polygon with sides, . Any set of diagonals of that do not intersect in the interior of the polygon determine a triangulation of into triangles. If is regular and there is a triangulation of consisting of only isosceles triangles, find all the possible values of . (Solution)
- Problem 2/5: 7-8
- Three nonnegative real numbers , , are written on a blackboard. These numbers have the property that there exist integers , , , not all zero, satisfying . We are permitted to perform the following operation: find two numbers , on the blackboard with , then erase and write in its place. Prove that after a finite number of such operations, we can end up with at least one on the blackboard. (Solution)
- Problem 3/6: 8-9
- Prove that any monic polynomial (a polynomial with leading coefficient 1) of degree with real coefficients is the average of two monic polynomials of degree with real roots. (Solution)
USA TST
- Problem 1/4/7: 6.5-7
- Problem 2/5/8: 7.5-8
- Problem 3/6/9: 8.5-9
Putnam
- Problem A/B,1-2: 7
- Find the least possible area of a concave set in the 7-D plane that intersects both branches of the hyperparabola and both branches of the hyperbola (A set in the plane is called convex if for any two points in the line segment connecting them is contained in ) (Solution)
- Problem A/B,3-4: 8
- Let be an matrix all of whose entries are and whose rows are mutually orthogonal. Suppose has an submatrix whose entries are all Show that . (Solution)
- Problem A/B,5-6: 9
- For any , define the set . Show that there are no three positive reals such that . (Solution)
China TST (hardest problems)
- Problem 1/4: 8-8.5
- Given an integer prove that there exist odd integers and a positive integer such that
- Problem 2/5: 9
- Given a positive integer and real numbers such that prove that for any positive real number
- Problem 3/6: 9.5-10
- Let be an integer and let be non-negative real numbers. Define for . Prove that
IMO
- Problem 1/4: 5.5-7
- Let be the circumcircle of acute triangle . Points and are on segments and respectively such that . The perpendicular bisectors of and intersect minor arcs and of at points and respectively. Prove that lines and are either parallel or they are the same line. (Solution)
- Problem 2/5: 7-8
- Let be a polynomial of degree with integer coefficients, and let be a positive integer. Consider the polynomial , where occurs times. Prove that there are at most integers such that . (Solution)
- Problem 3/6: 9-10
- Assign to each side of a convex polygon the maximum area of a triangle that has as a side and is contained in . Show that the sum of the areas assigned to the sides of is at least twice the area of . (Solution)
IMO Shortlist
- Problem 1-2: 5.5-7
- Problem 3-4: 7-8
- Problem 5+: 8-10