Euler line

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In any triangle $\triangle ABC$, the Euler line is a line which passes through the orthocenter $H$, centroid $G$, circumcenter $O$, nine-point center $N$ and De Longchamps point $L$. It is named after Leonhard Euler. Its existence is a non-trivial fact of Euclidean geometry. Certain fixed orders and distance ratios hold among these points. In particular, $\overline{OGNH}$ and $OG:GN:NH = 2:1:3$

Given the orthic triangle $\triangle H_AH_BH_C$ of $\triangle ABC$, the Euler lines of $\triangle AH_BH_C$,$\triangle BH_CH_A$, and $\triangle CH_AH_B$ concur at $N$, the nine-point center of $\triangle ABC$.

Proof of Existence

This proof utilizes the concept of spiral similarity, which in this case is a rotation followed homothety. Consider the medial triangle $\triangle O_AO_BO_C$. It is similar to $\triangle ABC$. Specifically, a rotation of $180^\circ$ about the midpoint of $O_BO_C$ followed by a homothety with scale factor $2$ centered at $A$ brings $\triangle ABC \to \triangle O_AO_BO_C$. Let us examine what else this transformation, which we denote as $\mathcal{S}$, will do.

It turns out $O$ is the orthocenter, and $G$ is the centroid of $\triangle O_AO_BO_C$. Thus, $\mathcal{S}(\{O_A, O, G\}) = \{A, H, G\}$. As a homothety preserves angles, it follows that $\measuredangle O_AOG = \measuredangle AHG$. Finally, as $\overline{AH} || \overline{O_AO}$ it follows that \[\triangle AHG = \triangle O_AOG\] Thus, $O, G, H$ are collinear, and $\frac{OG}{HG} = \frac{1}{2}$.


Euler Line.PNG

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