For over 15 years, our Textbooks and Online School have been the cornerstone of the mathematical training of many of the top students in the world. Check out our schedule of upcoming classes to find a class that's right for you!

Difference between revisions of "LaTeX:Symbols"

(Greek Letters)
(See Also)
 
(153 intermediate revisions by 60 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Latex}}
 
{{Latex}}
  
This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.
+
This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.
 +
 
 +
== Finding Other Symbols ==
 +
 
 +
Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>
 +
[http://detexify.kirelabs.org/classify.html Detexify] is an app which allows you to draw the symbol you'd like and shows you the <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> code for it!
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 
 +
<li>
 +
MathJax (what allows us to use <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> on the web) maintains a [http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/tex.html#supported-latex-commands list of supported commands].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 
 +
<li>
 +
[http://mirrors.ctan.org/info/symbols/comprehensive/symbols-a4.pdf The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
 
 +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
 
==Operators==
 
==Operators==
Line 23: Line 42:
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||<math>\unrhd</math>||\unrhd
+
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||[[Image:Unrhd.gif]]||\unrhd
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
Line 31: Line 50:
 
|<math>\bigtriangledown</math>||\bigtriangledown||<math>\Box</math>||\Box||<math>\triangleright</math>||\triangleright
 
|<math>\bigtriangledown</math>||\bigtriangledown||<math>\Box</math>||\Box||<math>\triangleright</math>||\triangleright
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr
+
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr||<math>\sqrt{x}</math>||\sqrt{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>x^{\circ}</math>||x^{\circ}||<math>\triangledown</math>||\triangledown||<math>\sqrt[n]{x}</math>||\sqrt[n]{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>a^x</math>||a^x||<math>a^{xyz}</math>||a^{xyz}
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 60: Line 83:
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel|| <math>\|</math> || <nowiki>\|</nowiki>
+
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel||
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid
+
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid||<math>\bumpeq</math>||\bumpeq||
 
|}
 
|}
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a few examples, plus a few other negations; it works for many of the others as well.
+
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.
{| class="latextable"
+
 
 +
{| class="latextable"}
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
|-
 
|-
Line 72: Line 96:
 
| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not=
+
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not= or \neq
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
Line 84: Line 108:
 
| <math>\lneqq</math>||\lneqq||<math>\gneqq</math>||\gneqq
 
| <math>\lneqq</math>||\lneqq||<math>\gneqq</math>||\gneqq
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in <math>\LaTeX</math>.
  
 
==Greek Letters==
 
==Greek Letters==
Line 107: Line 133:
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Arrows==
+
 
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
|+ Capital Letters
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\Gamma</math>||\Gamma||<math>\Delta</math>||\Delta||<math>\Theta</math>||\Theta||<math>\Lambda</math>||\Lambda
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\Xi</math>||\Xi||<math>\Pi</math>||\Pi||<math>\Sigma</math>||\Sigma||<math>\Upsilon</math>||\Upsilon
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\Phi</math>||\Phi||<math>\Psi</math>||\Psi||<math>\Omega</math>||\Omega
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
 
 +
== Arrows ==
 +
 
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\gets</math>||\gets||<math>\to</math>||\to
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\leftarrow</math>||\leftarrow||<math>\Leftarrow</math>||\Leftarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\rightarrow</math>||\rightarrow||<math>\Rightarrow</math>||\Rightarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\leftrightarrow</math>||\leftrightarrow||<math>\Leftrightarrow</math>||\Leftrightarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\mapsto</math>||\mapsto||<math>\hookleftarrow</math>||\hookleftarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\leftharpoonup</math>||\leftharpoonup||<math>\leftharpoondown</math>||\leftharpoondown
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\rightleftharpoons</math>||\rightleftharpoons||<math>\longleftarrow</math>||\longleftarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\Longleftarrow</math>||\Longleftarrow||<math>\longrightarrow</math>||\longrightarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\Longrightarrow</math>||\Longrightarrow||<math>\longleftrightarrow</math>||\longleftrightarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\Longleftrightarrow</math>||\Longleftrightarrow||<math>\longmapsto</math>||\longmapsto
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\hookrightarrow</math>||\hookrightarrow||<math>\rightharpoonup</math>||\rightharpoonup
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\rightharpoondown</math>||\rightharpoondown||<math>\leadsto</math>||\leadsto
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\uparrow</math>||\uparrow||<math>\Uparrow</math>||\Uparrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\downarrow</math>||\downarrow||<math>\Downarrow</math>||\Downarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\updownarrow</math>||\updownarrow||<math>\Updownarrow</math>||\Updownarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\nearrow</math>||\nearrow||<math>\searrow</math>||\searrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\swarrow</math>||\swarrow||<math>\nwarrow</math>||\nwarrow
 +
|}
 +
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)
 +
 
 
==Dots==
 
==Dots==
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!
 +
|-     
 +
|<math>\cdot</math>||\cdot|| |<math>\vdots</math>||\vdots|| 
 +
|-       
 +
|<math>\dots</math>||\dots|| |<math>\ddots</math>||\ddots||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\cdots</math>||\cdots|| |<math>\iddots</math>||\iddots||
 +
 +
|}
 +
 
==Accents==
 
==Accents==
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\hat{x}</math>||\hat{x}||<math>\check{x}</math>||\check{x}||<math>\dot{x}</math>||\dot{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\breve{x}</math>||\breve{x}||<math>\acute{x}</math>||\acute{x}||<math>\ddot{x}</math>||\ddot{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\grave{x}</math>||\grave{x}||<math>\tilde{x}</math>||\tilde{x}||<math>\mathring{x}</math>||\mathring{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bar{x}</math>||\bar{x}||<math>\vec{x}</math>||\vec{x}
 +
|}
 +
When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\vec{\jmath}</math>||\vec{\jmath}||<math>\tilde{\imath}</math>||\tilde{\imath}
 +
|}
 +
\tilde  and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\widehat{7+x}</math>||\widehat{7+x}||<math>\widetilde{abc}</math>||\widetilde{abc}
 +
|}
 +
 
==Others==
 
==Others==
==Bracketing Symbols==
+
{| class="latextable"
==Multi-Size Symbols==
+
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command                                                                   
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\infty</math>||\infty||<math>\triangle</math>||\triangle||<math>\angle</math>||\angle
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\aleph</math>||\aleph||<math>\hbar</math>||\hbar||<math>\imath</math>||\imath
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\jmath</math>||\jmath||<math>\ell</math>||\ell||<math>\wp</math>||\wp
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\Re</math>||\Re||<math>\Im</math>||\Im||<math>\mho</math>||\mho
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\prime</math>||\prime||<math>\emptyset</math>||\emptyset||<math>\nabla</math>||\nabla
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\surd</math>||\surd||<math>\partial</math>||\partial||<math>\top</math>||\top
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bot</math>||\bot||<math>\vdash</math>||\vdash||<math>\dashv</math>||\dashv
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\forall</math>||\forall||<math>\exists</math>||\exists||<math>\neg</math>||\neg
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\flat</math>||\flat||<math>\natural</math>||\natural||<math>\sharp</math>||\sharp
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\backslash</math>||\backslash||<math>\Box</math>||\Box||<math>\Diamond</math>||\Diamond
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\clubsuit</math>||\clubsuit||<math>\diamondsuit</math>||\diamondsuit||<math>\heartsuit</math>||\heartsuit
 +
|-
 +
|[[Image:Spadesuit.gif]]||\spadesuit||<math>\Join</math>||\Join||<math>\blacksquare</math>||\blacksquare
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\S</math>||\S||<math>\P</math>||\P||<math>\copyright</math>||\copyright
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\pounds</math>||\pounds||<math>\overarc{ABC}</math>||\overarc{ABC}||<math>\underarc{XYZ}</math>||\underarc{XYZ}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigstar</math>||\bigstar||<math>\in</math>||\in||<math>\cup</math>||\cup
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\square</math>||\square||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\smiley</math>||\smiley||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\mathbb{R}</math>||\mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\checkmark</math>||\checkmark||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\cancer</math>||\cancer||
 +
|}
  
'''\boxed{Answer}'''  produces a box around your Answer.
+
==Command Symbols==
 +
Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\textdollar</math>||\textdollar or \$||<math>\&</math>||\&||<math>\%</math>||\%||<math>\#</math>||\#
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\_</math>||\_||<math>\{</math>||\{||<math>\}</math>||\}||<math>\backslash</math>||\backslash
 +
|}
  
'''\frac{a}{b}''' produces a [[fraction]] with [[numerator]] <math>a</math> and [[denominator]] <math>b</math>. <math>\frac{a}{b}</math>
+
(Warning: Using <nowiki>$</nowiki> for <math>\textdollar</math> will result in <math>\$</math>. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of <math>\LaTeX</math> this is not always a problem.)
  
'''^\circ''' produces the degrees symbol.  <math>a^{\circ}</math>
+
==European Language Symbols==
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\oe}</math>||{\oe}||<math>{\ae}</math>||{\ae}||<math>{\o}</math>||{\o}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\OE}</math>||{\OE}||<math>{\AE}</math>||{\AE}||<math>{\AA}</math>||{\AA}||<math>{\O}</math>||{\O}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\l}</math>||{\l}||<math>{\ss}</math>||{\ss}||<math>\text{!`}</math>||!`
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\L}</math>||{\L}||<math>{\SS}</math>||{\SS}||
 +
|}
  
'''\text{Your Text Here}''' produces text within LaTeX.  <math>\mbox{Your Text Here}</math>.
+
==Bracketing Symbols==
 +
In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\{</math>||\{||<math>\}</math>||\}||<math>\|</math>||<nowiki>\|</nowiki>
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\backslash</math>||\backslash||<math>\lfloor</math>||\lfloor||<math>\rfloor</math>||\rfloor
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\lceil</math>||\lceil||<math>\rceil</math>||\rceil||<math>\langle</math>||\langle
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\rangle</math>||\rangle
 +
|}
 +
You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like
  
'''\mbox{Your Text Here}''' Produces text within LaTeX <math>\mbox{Your Text Here}</math>
+
:<tt>(\frac{a}{x} )^2</tt>
  
'''\sqrt{x}''' produces the square root of <math>x</math>.  <math>\sqrt{x}</math>
+
the parentheses don't come out the right size:
  
'''\sqrt[n]{x}''' produces the <math>n</math>th root of <math>x</math>.  <math>\sqrt[n]{x}</math>
+
:<math>(\frac{a}{x})^2</math>
  
'''a\equiv b \pmod{c}''' produces <math>a</math> is equivalent to <math>b</math> mod <math>c</math>.  <math>a\equiv b \pmod{c}</math> See [[Mods |Modular Arithmetic]]
+
If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:
  
'''\binom{9}{3}''' produces 9 choose 3.
+
:<tt>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</tt>
  
'''{n}\choose{r}''' produces n choose r. <math>{n}\choose{r}</math>
+
gives
  
'''x^{y}''' produces x to the power of y.  <math>x^y</math>
+
:<math>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</math>
  
'''x_{y}''' produces x with y in subscript.  <math>x_y</math>
+
And with system of equations:
  
'''\rightarrow''' produces an arrow to the right. <math>\rightarrow</math>
+
<tt>\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.</tt>
  
'''\leftarrow''' produces an arrow to the left. <math>\leftarrow</math>
+
Gives
  
'''\uparrow''' produces an arrow pointing upwards. <math>\uparrow</math>
+
<math>\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.</math>
  
'''\downarrow''' produces an arrow pointing downwards. <math>\downarrow</math>
+
See that there's a dot after <tt>\right</tt>. You must put that dot or the code won't work.
  
'''\updownarrow''' produces an arrow pointing up and down. <math>\updownarrow</math>
 
  
'''\ge''' produces a greater than or equal to sign. <math>\ge</math>
+
In addition to the <tt>\left</tt> and <tt>\right</tt> commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using
  
'''\le''' produces a less than or equal to sign. <math>\le</math>
+
<tt>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil</tt>  
  
'''\not>''' produces a not greater than sign. <math>\not></math>
+
and <tt>\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor </tt>
  
'''\not<''' produces a not less than sign. <math>\not<</math>
+
give both <math>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}</math>
  
'''\not\ge''' produces a not greater than or equal to sign. <math>\not\ge</math>
 
  
'''\not\le''' produces a not less than or equal to sign. <math>\not\le</math>
+
And, if you type this
  
'''\neq''' produces a not equal to sign. <math>\neq</math>
+
<tt>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</tt>
  
'''\infty''' produces an infinity sign. <math>\infty</math>
+
Gives
  
'''\perp''' produces a perpendicular sign. <math>\perp</math>
+
<math>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</math>
  
'''\angle''' produces an angle sign. <math>\angle</math>
+
Or
  
'''\triangle''' produces a triangle. <math>\triangle</math>
+
<tt>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</tt>
  
'''\ldots''' produces three dots at the bottom of a line (ellipsis). <math>\ldots</math>
+
Gives
  
'''\cdots''' produces three dots in the middle of a line (as in a series sum or product). <math>\cdots</math>
+
<math>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</math>
  
'''\times''' produces an <math>\times</math> as used in multiplication
 
  
'''\otimes''' produces a <math>\otimes</math>
+
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\uparrow</math>||\uparrow||<math>\downarrow</math>||\downarrow||<math>\updownarrow</math>||\updownarrow
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\Uparrow</math>||\Uparrow||<math>\Downarrow</math>||\Downarrow||<math>\Updownarrow</math>||\Updownarrow
 +
|}
  
Also note that you do not have to use braces, "{" and "}", when you only want one character in the operation.
+
==Multi-Size Symbols==
 +
Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use <nowiki>\[...\]</nowiki> or <nowiki>$$...$$</nowiki>, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the [[LaTeX:Commands|commands]] section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.
  
==Examples==
+
In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.
* x^y is the same as x^{y}.  <math>x^y</math>
 
* x_y is the same as x_{y}.  <math>x_y</math>
 
* BUT x^10 is ''not'' the same as x^{10}.  <math>x^10</math> instead of <math>x^{10}</math>.
 
  
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\sum  \textstyle\sum</math>||\sum||<math>\int  \textstyle\int</math>||\int||<math>\oint  \textstyle\oint</math>||\oint
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\prod  \textstyle\prod</math>||\prod||<math>\coprod  \textstyle\coprod</math>||\coprod||<math>\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap</math>||\bigcap
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup</math>||\bigcup||<math>\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup</math>||\bigsqcup||<math>\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee</math>||\bigvee
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge</math>||\bigwedge||<math>\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot</math>||\bigodot||<math>\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes</math>||\bigotimes
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus</math>||\bigoplus||<math>\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus</math>||\biguplus
 +
|}
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
*[[LaTeX:Layout | Previous: Layout]]
 

Latest revision as of 18:05, 24 June 2019

LaTeX
About - Getting Started - Diagrams - Symbols - Downloads - Basics - Math - Examples - Pictures - Layout - Commands - Packages - Help

This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.

Finding Other Symbols

Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:


Operators

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\pm$ \pm $\mp$ \mp $\times$ \times
$\div$ \div $\cdot$ \cdot $\ast$ \ast
$\star$ \star $\dagger$ \dagger $\ddagger$ \ddagger
$\amalg$ \amalg $\cap$ \cap $\cup$ \cup
$\uplus$ \uplus $\sqcap$ \sqcap $\sqcup$ \sqcup
$\vee$ \vee $\wedge$ \wedge $\oplus$ \oplus
$\ominus$ \ominus $\otimes$ \otimes $\circ$ \circ
$\bullet$ \bullet $\diamond$ \diamond $\lhd$ \lhd
$\rhd$ \rhd $\unlhd$ \unlhd Unrhd.gif \unrhd
$\oslash$ \oslash $\odot$ \odot $\bigcirc$ \bigcirc
$\triangleleft$ \triangleleft $\Diamond$ \Diamond $\bigtriangleup$ \bigtriangleup
$\bigtriangledown$ \bigtriangledown $\Box$ \Box $\triangleright$ \triangleright
$\setminus$ \setminus $\wr$ \wr $\sqrt{x}$ \sqrt{x}
$x^{\circ}$ x^{\circ} $\triangledown$ \triangledown $\sqrt[n]{x}$ \sqrt[n]{x}
$a^x$ a^x $a^{xyz}$ a^{xyz}

Relations

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\le$ \le $\ge$ \ge $\neq$ \neq
$\sim$ \sim $\ll$ \ll $\gg$ \gg
$\doteq$ \doteq $\simeq$ \simeq $\subset$ \subset
$\supset$ \supset $\approx$ \approx $\asymp$ \asymp
$\subseteq$ \subseteq $\supseteq$ \supseteq $\cong$ \cong
$\smile$ \smile $\sqsubset$ \sqsubset $\sqsupset$ \sqsupset
$\equiv$ \equiv $\frown$ \frown $\sqsubseteq$ \sqsubseteq
$\sqsupseteq$ \sqsupseteq $\propto$ \propto $\bowtie$ \bowtie
$\in$ \in $\ni$ \ni $\prec$ \prec
$\succ$ \succ $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\preceq$ \preceq $\succeq$ \succeq $\models$ \models
$\perp$ \perp $\parallel$ \parallel
$\mid$ \mid $\bumpeq$ \bumpeq

Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\nmid$ \nmid $\nleq$ \nleq $\ngeq$ \ngeq
$\nsim$ \nsim $\ncong$ \ncong $\nparallel$ \nparallel
$\not<$ \not< $\not>$ \not> $\not=$ \not= or \neq
$\not\le$ \not\le $\not\ge$ \not\ge $\not\sim$ \not\sim
$\not \approx$ \not\approx $\not\cong$ \not\cong $\not\equiv$ \not\equiv
$\not\parallel$ \not\parallel $\nless$ \nless $\ngtr$ \ngtr
$\lneq$ \lneq $\gneq$ \gneq $\lnsim$ \lnsim
$\lneqq$ \lneqq $\gneqq$ \gneqq

To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in $\LaTeX$.

Greek Letters

Lowercase Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\alpha$ \alpha $\beta$ \beta $\gamma$ \gamma $\delta$ \delta
$\epsilon$ \epsilon $\varepsilon$ \varepsilon $\zeta$ \zeta $\eta$ \eta
$\theta$ \theta $\vartheta$ \vartheta $\iota$ \iota $\kappa$ \kappa
$\lambda$ \lambda $\mu$ \mu $\nu$ \nu $\xi$ \xi
$\pi$ \pi $\varpi$ \varpi $\rho$ \rho $\varrho$ \varrho
$\sigma$ \sigma $\varsigma$ \varsigma $\tau$ \tau $\upsilon$ \upsilon
$\phi$ \phi $\varphi$ \varphi $\chi$ \chi $\psi$ \psi
$\omega$ \omega


Capital Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\Gamma$ \Gamma $\Delta$ \Delta $\Theta$ \Theta $\Lambda$ \Lambda
$\Xi$ \Xi $\Pi$ \Pi $\Sigma$ \Sigma $\Upsilon$ \Upsilon
$\Phi$ \Phi $\Psi$ \Psi $\Omega$ \Omega


Arrows

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\gets$ \gets $\to$ \to
$\leftarrow$ \leftarrow $\Leftarrow$ \Leftarrow
$\rightarrow$ \rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Rightarrow
$\leftrightarrow$ \leftrightarrow $\Leftrightarrow$ \Leftrightarrow
$\mapsto$ \mapsto $\hookleftarrow$ \hookleftarrow
$\leftharpoonup$ \leftharpoonup $\leftharpoondown$ \leftharpoondown
$\rightleftharpoons$ \rightleftharpoons $\longleftarrow$ \longleftarrow
$\Longleftarrow$ \Longleftarrow $\longrightarrow$ \longrightarrow
$\Longrightarrow$ \Longrightarrow $\longleftrightarrow$ \longleftrightarrow
$\Longleftrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $\longmapsto$ \longmapsto
$\hookrightarrow$ \hookrightarrow $\rightharpoonup$ \rightharpoonup
$\rightharpoondown$ \rightharpoondown $\leadsto$ \leadsto
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\Uparrow$ \Uparrow
$\downarrow$ \downarrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow
$\updownarrow$ \updownarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow
$\nearrow$ \nearrow $\searrow$ \searrow
$\swarrow$ \swarrow $\nwarrow$ \nwarrow

(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)

Dots

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\cdot$ \cdot $\vdots$ \vdots
$\dots$ \dots $\ddots$ \ddots
$\cdots$ \cdots $\iddots$ \iddots

Accents

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\hat{x}$ \hat{x} $\check{x}$ \check{x} $\dot{x}$ \dot{x}
$\breve{x}$ \breve{x} $\acute{x}$ \acute{x} $\ddot{x}$ \ddot{x}
$\grave{x}$ \grave{x} $\tilde{x}$ \tilde{x} $\mathring{x}$ \mathring{x}
$\bar{x}$ \bar{x} $\vec{x}$ \vec{x}

When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\vec{\jmath}$ \vec{\jmath} $\tilde{\imath}$ \tilde{\imath}

\tilde and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\widehat{7+x}$ \widehat{7+x} $\widetilde{abc}$ \widetilde{abc}

Others

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\infty$ \infty $\triangle$ \triangle $\angle$ \angle
$\aleph$ \aleph $\hbar$ \hbar $\imath$ \imath
$\jmath$ \jmath $\ell$ \ell $\wp$ \wp
$\Re$ \Re $\Im$ \Im $\mho$ \mho
$\prime$ \prime $\emptyset$ \emptyset $\nabla$ \nabla
$\surd$ \surd $\partial$ \partial $\top$ \top
$\bot$ \bot $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\forall$ \forall $\exists$ \exists $\neg$ \neg
$\flat$ \flat $\natural$ \natural $\sharp$ \sharp
$\backslash$ \backslash $\Box$ \Box $\Diamond$ \Diamond
$\clubsuit$ \clubsuit $\diamondsuit$ \diamondsuit $\heartsuit$ \heartsuit
Spadesuit.gif \spadesuit $\Join$ \Join $\blacksquare$ \blacksquare
$\S$ \S $\P$ \P $\copyright$ \copyright
$\pounds$ \pounds $\overarc{ABC}$ \overarc{ABC} $\underarc{XYZ}$ \underarc{XYZ}
$\bigstar$ \bigstar $\in$ \in $\cup$ \cup
$\square$ \square
$\smiley$ \smiley
$\mathbb{R}$ \mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)
$\checkmark$ \checkmark
$\cancer$ \cancer

Command Symbols

Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\textdollar$ \textdollar or $ $\&$ \& $\%$ \% $\#$ \#
$\_$ \_ $\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\backslash$ \backslash

(Warning: Using $ for $\textdollar$ will result in $$. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of $\LaTeX$ this is not always a problem.)

European Language Symbols

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
${\oe}$ {\oe} ${\ae}$ {\ae} ${\o}$ {\o}
${\OE}$ {\OE} ${\AE}$ {\AE} ${\AA}$ {\AA} ${\O}$ {\O}
${\l}$ {\l} ${\ss}$ {\ss} $\text{!`}$ !`
${\L}$ {\L} ${\SS}$ {\SS}

Bracketing Symbols

In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\|$ \|
$\backslash$ \backslash $\lfloor$ \lfloor $\rfloor$ \rfloor
$\lceil$ \lceil $\rceil$ \rceil $\langle$ \langle
$\rangle$ \rangle

You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like

(\frac{a}{x} )^2

the parentheses don't come out the right size:

$(\frac{a}{x})^2$

If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:

\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2

gives

$\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2$

And with system of equations:

\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.

Gives

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.$

See that there's a dot after \right. You must put that dot or the code won't work.


In addition to the \left and \right commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using

\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil

and \left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor

give both $\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}$


And, if you type this

\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}

Gives

$\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}$

Or

\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}

Gives

$\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}$


\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\downarrow$ \downarrow $\updownarrow$ \updownarrow
$\Uparrow$ \Uparrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow

Multi-Size Symbols

Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use \[...\] or $$...$$, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the commands section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.

In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\sum  \textstyle\sum$ \sum $\int  \textstyle\int$ \int $\oint  \textstyle\oint$ \oint
$\prod  \textstyle\prod$ \prod $\coprod  \textstyle\coprod$ \coprod $\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap$ \bigcap
$\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup$ \bigcup $\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup$ \bigsqcup $\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee$ \bigvee
$\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge$ \bigwedge $\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot$ \bigodot $\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes$ \bigotimes
$\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus$ \bigoplus $\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus$ \biguplus

See Also

Invalid username
Login to AoPS