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Difference between revisions of "LaTeX:Symbols"

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This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.   
 
This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.   
 +
 +
== Finding Other Symbols ==
 +
 +
Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>
 +
[http://detexify.kirelabs.org/classify.html Detexify] is an app which allows you to draw the symbol you'd like and shows you the <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> code for it!
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 +
<li>
 +
MathJax (what allows us to use <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> on the web, (technically an AJAX library simulating it.)) maintains a [http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/tex.html#supported-latex-commands list of supported commands].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 +
<li>
 +
[http://mirrors.ctan.org/info/symbols/comprehensive/symbols-a4.pdf The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
 +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
 
==Operators==
 
==Operators==
Line 23: Line 42:
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||[[Image:Unrhd.gif]]||\unrhd
+
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||<math>\unrhd</math>||\unrhd
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
Line 33: Line 52:
 
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr||<math>\sqrt{x}</math>||\sqrt{x}
 
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr||<math>\sqrt{x}</math>||\sqrt{x}
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>x^{\circ}</math>||x^{\circ}
+
|<math>x^{\circ}</math>||x^{\circ}||<math>\triangledown</math>||\triangledown||<math>\sqrt[n]{x}</math>||\sqrt[n]{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>a^x</math>||a^x||<math>a^{xyz}</math>||a^{xyz}||<math>a_x</math>||a_x
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 62: Line 83:
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel|| <math>\|</math> || <nowiki>\|</nowiki>
+
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel||
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid
+
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid||<math>\bumpeq</math>||\bumpeq||
 
|}
 
|}
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a few examples, plus a few other negations; it works for many of the others as well.
+
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.
{| class="latextable"
+
 
 +
{| class="latextable"}
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
|-
 
|-
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| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not=
+
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not= or \neq
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
Line 87: Line 109:
 
|}
 
|}
  
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you may just use the symbols on your keyboard.
+
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in <math>\LaTeX</math>.
  
 
==Greek Letters==
 
==Greek Letters==
Line 124: Line 146:
  
  
== Headline text ==
+
== Arrows ==
==Arrows==
+
 
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
Line 162: Line 184:
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\swarrow</math>||\swarrow||<math>\nwarrow</math>||\nwarrow
 
|<math>\swarrow</math>||\swarrow||<math>\nwarrow</math>||\nwarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\overrightarrow</math>||\overrightarrow||<math>\overleftarrow</math>||\overleftarrow
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\overleftrightarrow</math>||\overleftrightarrow|| ||
 
|}
 
|}
 
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)
 
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)
Line 167: Line 193:
 
==Dots==
 
==Dots==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!
 +
|-     
 +
|<math>\cdot</math>||\cdot|| |<math>\vdots</math>||\vdots|| 
 +
|-       
 +
|<math>\dots</math>||\dots|| |<math>\ddots</math>||\ddots||
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\ldots2 </math>||\ldots 2||<math>\vdots</math>||\vdots||<math>\cdots 2</math>||\cdots 2||<math>\ddots</math>||\ddots
+
|<math>\cdots</math>||\cdots|| |<math>\iddots</math>||\iddots||
 +
 
 
|}
 
|}
(The '2's after \ldots and \cdots are only present to make the distinction between the two clear.)
 
  
 
==Accents==
 
==Accents==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\hat{x}</math>||\hat{x}||<math>\check{x}</math>||\check{x}||<math>\dot{x}</math>||\dot{x}
 
|<math>\hat{x}</math>||\hat{x}||<math>\check{x}</math>||\check{x}||<math>\dot{x}</math>||\dot{x}
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!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\widehat{3+x}</math>||\widehat{3+x}||<math>\widetilde{abc}</math>||\widetilde{abc}
+
|<math>\widehat{7+x}</math>||\widehat{7+x}||<math>\widetilde{abc}</math>||\widetilde{abc}
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Others==
 
==Others==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command                                                                    
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\infty</math>||\infty||<math>\triangle</math>||\triangle||<math>\angle</math>||\angle
 
|<math>\infty</math>||\infty||<math>\triangle</math>||\triangle||<math>\angle</math>||\angle
Line 228: Line 258:
 
|<math>\S</math>||\S||<math>\P</math>||\P||<math>\copyright</math>||\copyright
 
|<math>\S</math>||\S||<math>\P</math>||\P||<math>\copyright</math>||\copyright
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\pounds</math>||\pounds||<math>\overarc{ABC}</math>||\overarc{ABC}(it works)||<math>\underarc{XYZ}</math>||\underarc{XYZ}(it works)
+
|<math>\pounds</math>||\pounds||<math>\overarc{ABC}</math>||\overarc{ABC}||<math>\underarc{XYZ}</math>||\underarc{XYZ}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigstar</math>||\bigstar||<math>\in</math>||\in||<math>\cup</math>||\cup
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\square</math>||\square||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\smiley</math>||\smiley||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\mathbb{R}</math>||\mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\checkmark</math>||\checkmark||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\cancer</math>||\cancer||
 
|}
 
|}
  
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!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\textdollar</math>||\textdollar||<math>\&</math>||\&||<math>\%</math>||\%||<math>\#</math>||\#
+
|<math>\textdollar</math>||\textdollar or \\$||<math>\&</math>||\&||<math>\%</math>||\%||<math>\#</math>||\#
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\_</math>||\_||<math>\{</math>||\{||<math>\}</math>||\}||<math>\backslash</math>||\backslash
 
|<math>\_</math>||\_||<math>\{</math>||\{||<math>\}</math>||\}||<math>\backslash</math>||\backslash
 
|}
 
|}
  
(Warning: Using <nowiki>\$</nowiki> for <math>\textdollar</math> will result in <math>&#036;</math>. This is a bug as far as we know.)
+
(Warning: Using <nowiki>$</nowiki> for <math>\textdollar</math> will result in <math>\$</math>. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of <math>\LaTeX</math> this is not always a problem.)
  
 
==European Language Symbols==
 
==European Language Symbols==
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!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>{\oe}</math>||{\oe}||<math>{\ae}</math>||{\ae}||<math>{\aa}</math>||{\aa}||<math>{\o}</math>||{\o}
+
|<math>{\oe}</math>||{\oe}||<math>{\ae}</math>||{\ae}||<math>{\o}</math>||{\o}
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>{\OE}</math>||{\OE}||<math>{\AE}</math>||{\AE}||<math>{\AA}</math>||{\AA}||<math>{\O}</math>||{\O}
 
|<math>{\OE}</math>||{\OE}||<math>{\AE}</math>||{\AE}||<math>{\AA}</math>||{\AA}||<math>{\O}</math>||{\O}
Line 253: Line 295:
 
|<math>{\l}</math>||{\l}||<math>{\ss}</math>||{\ss}||<math>\text{!`}</math>||!`
 
|<math>{\l}</math>||{\l}||<math>{\ss}</math>||{\ss}||<math>\text{!`}</math>||!`
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>{\L}</math>||{\L}||<math>{\SS}</math>||{\SS}||<math>\text{?`}</math>||?`
+
|<math>{\L}</math>||{\L}||<math>{\SS}</math>||{\SS}||
 
|}
 
|}
  
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:<math>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</math>
 
:<math>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</math>
 +
 +
For systems of equations or piecewise functions, use the cases environment:
 +
 +
<tt>f(x) = \begin{cases} x^2 & x \ge 0 \\ x & x < 0 \end{cases}</tt>
 +
 +
which gives
 +
 +
<math>f(x) = \begin{cases} x^2 & x \ge 0 \\ x & x < 0 \end{cases}</math>
 +
 +
In addition to the <tt>\left</tt> and <tt>\right</tt> commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using
 +
 +
<tt>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil</tt>
 +
 +
and <tt>\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor </tt>
 +
 +
give both <math>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}</math>
 +
 +
 +
And, if you type this
 +
 +
<tt>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</tt>
 +
 +
Gives
 +
 +
<math>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</math>
 +
 +
Or
 +
 +
<tt>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</tt>
 +
 +
Gives
 +
 +
<math>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</math>
 +
  
 
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
 
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
Line 312: Line 388:
 
|<math>\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus</math>||\bigoplus||<math>\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus</math>||\biguplus
 
|<math>\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus</math>||\bigoplus||<math>\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus</math>||\biguplus
 
|}
 
|}
 
==Examples==
 
* x^y is the same as x^{y}, producing <math>x^y</math> .
 
* x_y is the same as x_{y}, producing  <math>x_y</math> .
 
* However, x^10 is ''not'' the same as x^{10}.  The former produces <math>x^10</math> instead of <math>x^{10}</math>.
 
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
*[[LaTeX:Layout | Previous: Layout]]
 

Latest revision as of 17:19, 13 July 2020

LaTeX
About - Getting Started - Diagrams - Symbols - Downloads - Basics - Math - Examples - Pictures - Layout - Commands - Packages - Help

This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.

Finding Other Symbols

Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:


Operators

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\pm$ \pm $\mp$ \mp $\times$ \times
$\div$ \div $\cdot$ \cdot $\ast$ \ast
$\star$ \star $\dagger$ \dagger $\ddagger$ \ddagger
$\amalg$ \amalg $\cap$ \cap $\cup$ \cup
$\uplus$ \uplus $\sqcap$ \sqcap $\sqcup$ \sqcup
$\vee$ \vee $\wedge$ \wedge $\oplus$ \oplus
$\ominus$ \ominus $\otimes$ \otimes $\circ$ \circ
$\bullet$ \bullet $\diamond$ \diamond $\lhd$ \lhd
$\rhd$ \rhd $\unlhd$ \unlhd $\unrhd$ \unrhd
$\oslash$ \oslash $\odot$ \odot $\bigcirc$ \bigcirc
$\triangleleft$ \triangleleft $\Diamond$ \Diamond $\bigtriangleup$ \bigtriangleup
$\bigtriangledown$ \bigtriangledown $\Box$ \Box $\triangleright$ \triangleright
$\setminus$ \setminus $\wr$ \wr $\sqrt{x}$ \sqrt{x}
$x^{\circ}$ x^{\circ} $\triangledown$ \triangledown $\sqrt[n]{x}$ \sqrt[n]{x}
$a^x$ a^x $a^{xyz}$ a^{xyz} $a_x$ a_x

Relations

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\le$ \le $\ge$ \ge $\neq$ \neq
$\sim$ \sim $\ll$ \ll $\gg$ \gg
$\doteq$ \doteq $\simeq$ \simeq $\subset$ \subset
$\supset$ \supset $\approx$ \approx $\asymp$ \asymp
$\subseteq$ \subseteq $\supseteq$ \supseteq $\cong$ \cong
$\smile$ \smile $\sqsubset$ \sqsubset $\sqsupset$ \sqsupset
$\equiv$ \equiv $\frown$ \frown $\sqsubseteq$ \sqsubseteq
$\sqsupseteq$ \sqsupseteq $\propto$ \propto $\bowtie$ \bowtie
$\in$ \in $\ni$ \ni $\prec$ \prec
$\succ$ \succ $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\preceq$ \preceq $\succeq$ \succeq $\models$ \models
$\perp$ \perp $\parallel$ \parallel
$\mid$ \mid $\bumpeq$ \bumpeq

Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\nmid$ \nmid $\nleq$ \nleq $\ngeq$ \ngeq
$\nsim$ \nsim $\ncong$ \ncong $\nparallel$ \nparallel
$\not<$ \not< $\not>$ \not> $\not=$ \not= or \neq
$\not\le$ \not\le $\not\ge$ \not\ge $\not\sim$ \not\sim
$\not \approx$ \not\approx $\not\cong$ \not\cong $\not\equiv$ \not\equiv
$\not\parallel$ \not\parallel $\nless$ \nless $\ngtr$ \ngtr
$\lneq$ \lneq $\gneq$ \gneq $\lnsim$ \lnsim
$\lneqq$ \lneqq $\gneqq$ \gneqq

To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in $\LaTeX$.

Greek Letters

Lowercase Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\alpha$ \alpha $\beta$ \beta $\gamma$ \gamma $\delta$ \delta
$\epsilon$ \epsilon $\varepsilon$ \varepsilon $\zeta$ \zeta $\eta$ \eta
$\theta$ \theta $\vartheta$ \vartheta $\iota$ \iota $\kappa$ \kappa
$\lambda$ \lambda $\mu$ \mu $\nu$ \nu $\xi$ \xi
$\pi$ \pi $\varpi$ \varpi $\rho$ \rho $\varrho$ \varrho
$\sigma$ \sigma $\varsigma$ \varsigma $\tau$ \tau $\upsilon$ \upsilon
$\phi$ \phi $\varphi$ \varphi $\chi$ \chi $\psi$ \psi
$\omega$ \omega


Capital Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\Gamma$ \Gamma $\Delta$ \Delta $\Theta$ \Theta $\Lambda$ \Lambda
$\Xi$ \Xi $\Pi$ \Pi $\Sigma$ \Sigma $\Upsilon$ \Upsilon
$\Phi$ \Phi $\Psi$ \Psi $\Omega$ \Omega


Arrows

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\gets$ \gets $\to$ \to
$\leftarrow$ \leftarrow $\Leftarrow$ \Leftarrow
$\rightarrow$ \rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Rightarrow
$\leftrightarrow$ \leftrightarrow $\Leftrightarrow$ \Leftrightarrow
$\mapsto$ \mapsto $\hookleftarrow$ \hookleftarrow
$\leftharpoonup$ \leftharpoonup $\leftharpoondown$ \leftharpoondown
$\rightleftharpoons$ \rightleftharpoons $\longleftarrow$ \longleftarrow
$\Longleftarrow$ \Longleftarrow $\longrightarrow$ \longrightarrow
$\Longrightarrow$ \Longrightarrow $\longleftrightarrow$ \longleftrightarrow
$\Longleftrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $\longmapsto$ \longmapsto
$\hookrightarrow$ \hookrightarrow $\rightharpoonup$ \rightharpoonup
$\rightharpoondown$ \rightharpoondown $\leadsto$ \leadsto
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\Uparrow$ \Uparrow
$\downarrow$ \downarrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow
$\updownarrow$ \updownarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow
$\nearrow$ \nearrow $\searrow$ \searrow
$\swarrow$ \swarrow $\nwarrow$ \nwarrow
$\overrightarrow$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing $ inserted.) \overrightarrow $\overleftarrow$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing $ inserted.) \overleftarrow
$\overleftrightarrow$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing $ inserted.) \overleftrightarrow

(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)

Dots

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\cdot$ \cdot $\vdots$ \vdots
$\dots$ \dots $\ddots$ \ddots
$\cdots$ \cdots $\iddots$ \iddots

Accents

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\hat{x}$ \hat{x} $\check{x}$ \check{x} $\dot{x}$ \dot{x}
$\breve{x}$ \breve{x} $\acute{x}$ \acute{x} $\ddot{x}$ \ddot{x}
$\grave{x}$ \grave{x} $\tilde{x}$ \tilde{x} $\mathring{x}$ \mathring{x}
$\bar{x}$ \bar{x} $\vec{x}$ \vec{x}

When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\vec{\jmath}$ \vec{\jmath} $\tilde{\imath}$ \tilde{\imath}

\tilde and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\widehat{7+x}$ \widehat{7+x} $\widetilde{abc}$ \widetilde{abc}

Others

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\infty$ \infty $\triangle$ \triangle $\angle$ \angle
$\aleph$ \aleph $\hbar$ \hbar $\imath$ \imath
$\jmath$ \jmath $\ell$ \ell $\wp$ \wp
$\Re$ \Re $\Im$ \Im $\mho$ \mho
$\prime$ \prime $\emptyset$ \emptyset $\nabla$ \nabla
$\surd$ \surd $\partial$ \partial $\top$ \top
$\bot$ \bot $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\forall$ \forall $\exists$ \exists $\neg$ \neg
$\flat$ \flat $\natural$ \natural $\sharp$ \sharp
$\backslash$ \backslash $\Box$ \Box $\Diamond$ \Diamond
$\clubsuit$ \clubsuit $\diamondsuit$ \diamondsuit $\heartsuit$ \heartsuit
Spadesuit.gif \spadesuit $\Join$ \Join $\blacksquare$ \blacksquare
$\S$ \S $\P$ \P $\copyright$ \copyright
$\pounds$ \pounds $\overarc{ABC}$ \overarc{ABC} $\underarc{XYZ}$ \underarc{XYZ}
$\bigstar$ \bigstar $\in$ \in $\cup$ \cup
$\square$ \square
$\smiley$ \smiley
$\mathbb{R}$ \mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)
$\checkmark$ \checkmark
$\cancer$ \cancer

Command Symbols

Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\textdollar$ \textdollar or \$ $\&$ \& $\%$ \% $\#$ \#
$\_$ \_ $\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\backslash$ \backslash

(Warning: Using $ for $\textdollar$ will result in $$. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of $\LaTeX$ this is not always a problem.)

European Language Symbols

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
${\oe}$ {\oe} ${\ae}$ {\ae} ${\o}$ {\o}
${\OE}$ {\OE} ${\AE}$ {\AE} ${\AA}$ {\AA} ${\O}$ {\O}
${\l}$ {\l} ${\ss}$ {\ss} $\text{!`}$ !`
${\L}$ {\L} ${\SS}$ {\SS}

Bracketing Symbols

In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\|$ \|
$\backslash$ \backslash $\lfloor$ \lfloor $\rfloor$ \rfloor
$\lceil$ \lceil $\rceil$ \rceil $\langle$ \langle
$\rangle$ \rangle

You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like

(\frac{a}{x} )^2

the parentheses don't come out the right size:

$(\frac{a}{x})^2$

If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:

\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2

gives

$\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2$

For systems of equations or piecewise functions, use the cases environment:

f(x) = \begin{cases} x^2 & x \ge 0 \\ x & x < 0 \end{cases}

which gives

$f(x) = \begin{cases} x^2 & x \ge 0 \\ x & x < 0 \end{cases}$

In addition to the \left and \right commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using

\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil

and \left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor

give both $\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}$


And, if you type this

\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}

Gives

$\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}$

Or

\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}

Gives

$\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}$


\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\downarrow$ \downarrow $\updownarrow$ \updownarrow
$\Uparrow$ \Uparrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow

Multi-Size Symbols

Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use \[...\] or $$...$$, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the commands section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.

In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\sum  \textstyle\sum$ \sum $\int  \textstyle\int$ \int $\oint  \textstyle\oint$ \oint
$\prod  \textstyle\prod$ \prod $\coprod  \textstyle\coprod$ \coprod $\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap$ \bigcap
$\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup$ \bigcup $\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup$ \bigsqcup $\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee$ \bigvee
$\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge$ \bigwedge $\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot$ \bigodot $\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes$ \bigotimes
$\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus$ \bigoplus $\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus$ \biguplus

See Also

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