# Menelaus' Theorem

Menelaus' Theorem deals with the collinearity of points on each of the three sides (extended when necessary) of a triangle. It is named for Menelaus of Alexandria.

## Statement

If line $PQ$ intersecting $AB$ on $\triangle ABC$, where $P$ is on $BC$, $Q$ is on the extension of $AC$, and $R$ on the intersection of $PQ$ and $AB$, then $$\frac{PB}{CP} \cdot \frac{QC}{QA} \cdot \frac{AR}{RB} = 1.$$ $[asy] unitsize(16); defaultpen(fontsize(8)); pair A=(7,6), B=(0,0), C=(10,0), P=(4,0), Q=(6,8), R; draw((0,0)--(10,0)--(7,6)--(0,0),blue+0.75); draw((7,6)--(6,8)--(4,0)); R=intersectionpoint(A--B,Q--P); dot(A^^B^^C^^P^^Q^^R); label("A",A,(1,1));label("B",B,(-1,0));label("C",C,(1,0));label("P",P,(0,-1));label("Q",Q,(1,0));label("R",R,(-1,1)); [/asy]$

Alternatively, when written with directed segments, the theorem becomes $BP\cdot CQ\cdot AR = -PC\cdot QA\cdot RB$.

## Proofs

### Proof with Similar Triangles

Draw a line parallel to $QP$ through $A$ to intersect $BC$ at $K$: $[asy] unitsize(16); defaultpen(fontsize(8)); pair A=(7,6), B=(0,0), C=(10,0), P=(4,0), Q=(6,8), R, K=(5.5,0); draw((0,0)--(10,0)--(7,6)--(0,0),blue+0.75); draw((7,6)--(6,8)--(4,0)); draw(A--K, dashed); R=intersectionpoint(A--B,Q--P); dot(A^^B^^C^^P^^Q^^R^^K); label("A",A,(1,1));label("B",B,(-1,0));label("C",C,(1,0));label("P",P,(0,-1));label("Q",Q,(1,0));label("R",R,(-1,1)); label("K",K,(0,-1)); [/asy]$ $\triangle RBP \sim \triangle ABK \implies \frac{AR}{RB}=\frac{KP}{PB}$ $\triangle QCP \sim \triangle ACK \implies \frac{QC}{QA}=\frac{CP}{KP}$

Multiplying the two equalities together to eliminate the $PK$ factor, we get: $\frac{AR}{RB}\cdot\frac{QC}{QA}=\frac{CP}{PB}\implies \frac{AR}{RB}\cdot\frac{QC}{QA}\cdot\frac{PB}{CP}=1$

### Proof with Barycentric coordinates

Disclaimer: This proof is not nearly as elegant as the above one. It uses a bash-type approach, as barycentric coordinate proofs tend to be.

Suppose we give the points $P, Q, R$ the following coordinates: $P: (0, P, 1-P)$ $R: (R , 1-R, 0)$ $Q: (1-Q ,0 , Q)$

Note that this says the following: $\frac{CP}{PB}=\frac{1-P}{P}$ $\frac{BR}{AR}=\frac{1-R}{R}$ $\frac{QA}{QC}=\frac{1-Q}{Q}$

The line through $R$ and $P$ is given by: $\begin{vmatrix} X & 0 & R \\ Y & P & 1-R\\ Z & 1-P & 0 \end{vmatrix} = 0$

which yields, after simplification, $$-X\cdot (R-1)(P-1)+Y\cdot R(1-P)-Z\cdot PR = 0$$ $$Z\cdot PR = -X\cdot (R-1)(P-1)+Y\cdot R(1-P).$$

Plugging in the coordinates for $Q$ yields $(Q-1)(R-1)(P-1) = QPR$. From $\frac{CP}{PB}=\frac{1-P}{P},$ we have $$P=\frac{(1-P)\cdot PB}{CP}.$$ Likewise, $$R=\frac{(1-R)\cdot AR}{BR}$$ and $$Q=\frac{(1-Q)\cdot QC}{QA}.$$

Substituting these values yields $$(Q-1)(R-1)(P-1) = \frac{(1-Q)\cdot QC \cdot (1-P) \cdot PB \cdot (1-R) \cdot AR}{QA\cdot CP\cdot BR}$$ which simplifies to $QA\cdot CP \cdot BR = -QC \cdot AR \cdot PB.$

QED

## Converse

The converse of Menelaus' Statement is also true. If $\frac{BP}{PC} \cdot \frac{CQ}{QA} \cdot \frac{AR}{RB} = 1$ in the below diagram, then $P, Q, R$ are collinear. The converse is useful in proving that three points are collinear. $[asy] unitsize(16); defaultpen(fontsize(8)); pair A=(7,6), B=(0,0), C=(10,0), P=(4,0), Q=(6,8), R; draw((0,0)--(10,0)--(7,6)--(0,0),blue+0.75); draw((7,6)--(6,8)--(4,0)); R=intersectionpoint(A--B,Q--P); dot(A^^B^^C^^P^^Q^^R); label("A",A,(1,1));label("B",B,(-1,0));label("C",C,(1,0));label("P",P,(0,-1));label("Q",Q,(1,0));label("R",R,(-1,1)); [/asy]$

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