# Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion

The Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion (abbreviated PIE) provides an organized method/formula to find the number of elements in the union of a given group of sets, the size of each set, and the size of all possible intersections among the sets.

## Statement

If $(A_i)_{1\leq i\leq n}$ are finite sets, then:

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|=\sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right| -\sum_{i < j}\left|A_i\cap A_j\right| +\sum_{i.

## Remarks

Sometimes it is also useful to know that, if you take into account only the first $m\le n$ sums on the right, then you will get an overestimate if $m$ is odd and an underestimate if $m$ is even. So,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\le \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|$,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\ge \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|-\sum_{i < j}\left|A_i\cap A_j\right|$,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\le \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|-\sum_{i < j}\left|A_i\cap A_j\right| +\sum_{i,

and so on.