Difference between revisions of "Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick"

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==About==
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==The General Statement For Nerds==
'''Dr. Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick''' (abbreviated '''SFFT''') is a special factorization first popularized by [[AoPS]] user [[user:ComplexZeta | Simon Rubinstein-Salzedo]].
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Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick (SFFT) is often used in a Diophantine equation where factoring is needed. The most common form it appears is when there is a constant on one side of the equation and a product of variables with each of those variables in a linear term on the other side. A extortive example would be: <cmath>xy+66x-88y=23333</cmath>where <math>23333</math> is the constant term, <math>xy</math> is the product of the variables, <math>66x</math> and <math>-88y</math> are the variables in linear terms.
  
==The General Statement==
 
The general statement of SFFT is: <math>{xy}+{xk}+{yj}+{jk}=(x+j)(y+k)</math>.  Two special common cases are: <math>xy + x + y + 1 = (x+1)(y+1)</math> and <math>xy - x - y +1 = (x-1)(y-1)</math>.
 
  
The act of adding <math>{jk}</math> to <math>{xy}+{xk}+{yj}</math> in order to be able to factor it could be called "completing the rectangle" in analogy to the more familiar "completing the square."
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Let's put it in general terms. We have an equation <math>xy+jx+ky=a</math>, where <math>j</math>, <math>k</math>, and <math>a</math> are integral constants. According to Simon's Favourite Factoring Trick, this equation can be transformed into: <cmath>(x+k)(y+j)=a+jk</cmath>
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Using the previous example, <math>xy+66x-88y=23333</math> is the same as: <cmath>(x-88)(y+66)=(23333)+(-88)(66)</cmath>
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If this is confusing or you would like to know the thought process behind SFFT, see this eight-minute video by Richard Rusczyk from AoPS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nN3H7w2LnI. For the thought process, start from https://youtu.be/0nN3H7w2LnI?t=366
  
 
== Applications ==
 
== Applications ==
 
This factorization frequently shows up on contest problems, especially those heavy on algebraic manipulation. Usually <math>x</math> and <math>y</math> are variables and <math>j,k</math> are known constants. Also, it is typically necessary to add the <math>jk</math> term to both sides to perform the factorization.
 
This factorization frequently shows up on contest problems, especially those heavy on algebraic manipulation. Usually <math>x</math> and <math>y</math> are variables and <math>j,k</math> are known constants. Also, it is typically necessary to add the <math>jk</math> term to both sides to perform the factorization.
  
== Amazing Practice Problems ==
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== Fun Practice Problems ==
 
===Introductory===
 
===Introductory===
 
*Two different [[prime number]]s between <math>4</math> and <math>18</math> are chosen. When their sum is subtracted from their product, which of the following numbers could be obtained?
 
*Two different [[prime number]]s between <math>4</math> and <math>18</math> are chosen. When their sum is subtracted from their product, which of the following numbers could be obtained?
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===Intermediate===
 
===Intermediate===
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==Problem 1==
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*If <math>kn+54k+2n+106</math> has a remainder of <math>4</math> when divided by <math>5</math>, and <math>k</math> has a remainder of <math>1</math> when divided by <math>5</math>, find the value of the remainder of when <math>n</math> is divided by <math>5</math>.
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<math> \mathrm{(A) \ 5 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 7 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 4 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 2 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 3 }  </math>
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- icecreamrolls8
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==Solution==
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We have solution <math>3</math>. Note that <math>kn+54k+2n+106</math> can be factored into <cmath>(k+2)(n+54)</cmath> using <math>Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick</math>. Now, look at n. Then, since the problem tells us that <math>k</math> has a remainder of <math>1</math> when divided by 5, we see that the <math>(k+2)</math> factor in the <math>(k+2)(n+54)</math> expression has a remainder of <math>3</math> when divided by 5. Now, the <math>(n+54)</math> must have a remainder of <math>3</math> when divided by <math>5</math> as well (because then the main expression has a remainder of <math>4</math> when divided by <math>5</math>). Therefore, since 54 has a remainder of <math>4</math> when divided by <math>5</math>, <math>n</math> must have a remainder of <math>3</math>, our answer, so that the entire factor has a remainder of <math>3</math> when divided by <math>5</math>.
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- icecreamrolls8
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==Problem 2==
 
*<math>m, n</math> are integers such that <math>m^2 + 3m^2n^2 = 30n^2 + 517</math>. Find <math>3m^2n^2</math>.
 
*<math>m, n</math> are integers such that <math>m^2 + 3m^2n^2 = 30n^2 + 517</math>. Find <math>3m^2n^2</math>.
  
([[1987 AIME Problems/Problem 5|Source]])
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([[1987 AIME Problems/Problem 5|Source]]) NERD
  
 
===Olympiad===
 
===Olympiad===
  
*The integer <math>N</math> is positive. There are exactly 2005 ordered pairs <math>(x, y)</math> of positive integers satisfying:
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*The integer <math>N</math> is positive. There are exactly <math>2005</math> ordered pairs <math>(x, y)</math> of positive integers satisfying:
  
 
<cmath>\frac 1x +\frac 1y = \frac 1N</cmath>
 
<cmath>\frac 1x +\frac 1y = \frac 1N</cmath>
  
Prove that <math>N</math> is a perfect square. (British Mathematical Olympiad Round 2, 2005)
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Prove that <math>N</math> is a perfect square.  
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Source: (British Mathematical Olympiad Round 3, 2005)
  
 
== See More==
 
== See More==

Latest revision as of 23:02, 5 May 2021

The General Statement For Nerds

Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick (SFFT) is often used in a Diophantine equation where factoring is needed. The most common form it appears is when there is a constant on one side of the equation and a product of variables with each of those variables in a linear term on the other side. A extortive example would be: \[xy+66x-88y=23333\]where $23333$ is the constant term, $xy$ is the product of the variables, $66x$ and $-88y$ are the variables in linear terms.


Let's put it in general terms. We have an equation $xy+jx+ky=a$, where $j$, $k$, and $a$ are integral constants. According to Simon's Favourite Factoring Trick, this equation can be transformed into: \[(x+k)(y+j)=a+jk\] Using the previous example, $xy+66x-88y=23333$ is the same as: \[(x-88)(y+66)=(23333)+(-88)(66)\]


If this is confusing or you would like to know the thought process behind SFFT, see this eight-minute video by Richard Rusczyk from AoPS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0nN3H7w2LnI. For the thought process, start from https://youtu.be/0nN3H7w2LnI?t=366

Applications

This factorization frequently shows up on contest problems, especially those heavy on algebraic manipulation. Usually $x$ and $y$ are variables and $j,k$ are known constants. Also, it is typically necessary to add the $jk$ term to both sides to perform the factorization.

Fun Practice Problems

Introductory

  • Two different prime numbers between $4$ and $18$ are chosen. When their sum is subtracted from their product, which of the following numbers could be obtained?

$\mathrm{(A) \ 22 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 60 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 119 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 180 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 231 }$

(Source)

Intermediate

Problem 1

  • If $kn+54k+2n+106$ has a remainder of $4$ when divided by $5$, and $k$ has a remainder of $1$ when divided by $5$, find the value of the remainder of when $n$ is divided by $5$.

$\mathrm{(A) \ 5 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 7 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 4 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 2 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 3 }$

- icecreamrolls8

Solution

We have solution $3$. Note that $kn+54k+2n+106$ can be factored into \[(k+2)(n+54)\] using $Simon's Favorite Factoring Trick$. Now, look at n. Then, since the problem tells us that $k$ has a remainder of $1$ when divided by 5, we see that the $(k+2)$ factor in the $(k+2)(n+54)$ expression has a remainder of $3$ when divided by 5. Now, the $(n+54)$ must have a remainder of $3$ when divided by $5$ as well (because then the main expression has a remainder of $4$ when divided by $5$). Therefore, since 54 has a remainder of $4$ when divided by $5$, $n$ must have a remainder of $3$, our answer, so that the entire factor has a remainder of $3$ when divided by $5$.

- icecreamrolls8

Problem 2

  • $m, n$ are integers such that $m^2 + 3m^2n^2 = 30n^2 + 517$. Find $3m^2n^2$.

(Source) NERD

Olympiad

  • The integer $N$ is positive. There are exactly $2005$ ordered pairs $(x, y)$ of positive integers satisfying:

\[\frac 1x +\frac 1y = \frac 1N\]

Prove that $N$ is a perfect square.

Source: (British Mathematical Olympiad Round 3, 2005)

See More

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