Difference between revisions of "1989 AIME Problems/Problem 9"

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== Solution 1 ==
 
== Solution 1 ==
 
Note that <math>n</math> is even, since the <math>LHS</math> consists of two odd and two even numbers. By [[Fermat's Little Theorem]], we know <math>{n^{5}}</math> is congruent to <math>n</math> [[modulo]] 5.  Hence,
 
Note that <math>n</math> is even, since the <math>LHS</math> consists of two odd and two even numbers. By [[Fermat's Little Theorem]], we know <math>{n^{5}}</math> is congruent to <math>n</math> [[modulo]] 5.  Hence,
<center><math>3 + 0 + 4 + 7 \equiv n\pmod{5}</math></center>
+
<center><math>3 + 0 + 4 + 2 \equiv n\pmod{5}</math></center>
 
<center><math>4 \equiv n\pmod{5}</math></center>
 
<center><math>4 \equiv n\pmod{5}</math></center>
  
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Thus, <math>n</math> is divisible by three and leaves a remainder of four when divided by 5.  It's obvious that <math>n>133</math>, so the only possibilities are <math>n = 144</math> or <math>n \geq 174</math>.  It quickly becomes apparent that 174 is much too large, so <math>n</math> must be <math>\boxed{144}</math>.
 
Thus, <math>n</math> is divisible by three and leaves a remainder of four when divided by 5.  It's obvious that <math>n>133</math>, so the only possibilities are <math>n = 144</math> or <math>n \geq 174</math>.  It quickly becomes apparent that 174 is much too large, so <math>n</math> must be <math>\boxed{144}</math>.
 
  
 
== Solution 2 ==
 
== Solution 2 ==

Revision as of 19:46, 10 March 2019

Problem

One of Euler's conjectures was disproved in the 1960s by three American mathematicians when they showed there was a positive integer such that $133^5+110^5+84^5+27^5=n^{5}$. Find the value of $n$.

Solution 1

Note that $n$ is even, since the $LHS$ consists of two odd and two even numbers. By Fermat's Little Theorem, we know ${n^{5}}$ is congruent to $n$ modulo 5. Hence,

$3 + 0 + 4 + 2 \equiv n\pmod{5}$
$4 \equiv n\pmod{5}$

Continuing, we examine the equation modulo 3,

$1 - 1 + 0 + 0 \equiv n\pmod{3}$
$0 \equiv n\pmod{3}$

Thus, $n$ is divisible by three and leaves a remainder of four when divided by 5. It's obvious that $n>133$, so the only possibilities are $n = 144$ or $n \geq 174$. It quickly becomes apparent that 174 is much too large, so $n$ must be $\boxed{144}$.

Solution 2

We can cheat a little bit and approximate, since we are dealing with such large numbers. As above, $n^5\equiv n\pmod{5}$, and it is easy to see that $n^5\equiv n\pmod 2$. Therefore, $133^5+110^5+84^5+27^5\equiv 3+0+4+7\equiv 4\pmod{10}$, so the last digit of $n$ is 4.

We notice that $133,110,84,$ and $27$ are all very close or equal to multiples of 27. We can rewrite $n^5$ as approximately equal to $27^5(5^5+4^5+3^5+1^5) = 27^5(4393)$. This means $\frac{n}{27}$ must be close to $4393$.

134 will obviously be too small, so we try 144. $\left(\frac{144}{27}\right)^5=\left(\frac{16}{3}\right)^5$. Bashing through the division, we find that $\frac{1048576}{243}\approx 4315$, which is very close to $4393$. It is clear that 154 will not give any closer of an answer, given the rate that fifth powers grow, so we can safely assume that $\boxed{144}$ is the answer.

See also

1989 AIME (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 8
Followed by
Problem 10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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