2005 USAMO Problems/Problem 2
(Răzvan Gelca) Prove that the system has no solutions in integers , , and .
It suffices to show that there are no solutions to this system in the integers mod 19. We note that , so . For reference, we construct a table of powers of five: Evidently, then the order of 5 is 9. Hence 5 is the square of a multiplicative generator of the nonzero integers mod 19, so this table shows all nonzero squares mod 19, as well.
It follows that , and . Thus we rewrite our system thus: Adding these, we have
\[(x^3+y+1)^2 - 1 + z^9 &\equiv -6,\] (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Misplaced alignment tab character &.)
or By Fermat's Little Theorem, the only possible values of are and 0, so the only possible values of are , and . But none of these are squares mod 19, a contradiction. Therefore the system has no solutions in the integers mod 19. Therefore the solution has no equation in the integers.
Alternate solutions are always welcome. If you have a different, elegant solution to this problem, please add it to this page.
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