Difference between revisions of "2006 Romanian NMO Problems/Grade 7/Problem 2"

 
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A square of side <math>n</math> is formed from <math>n^2</math> unit squares, each colored in red, yellow or green. Find minimal <math>n</math>, such that for each coloring, there exists a line and a column with at least 3 unit squares of the same color (on the same line or column).
 
A square of side <math>n</math> is formed from <math>n^2</math> unit squares, each colored in red, yellow or green. Find minimal <math>n</math>, such that for each coloring, there exists a line and a column with at least 3 unit squares of the same color (on the same line or column).
 
==Solution==
 
==Solution==
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For <math>n\leq6</math>, consider this coloring for a 6x6 board:
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 +
<cmath>\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|}
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\hline R&Y&G&R&Y&G \\
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\hline G&R&Y&G&R&Y \\
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\hline Y&G&R&Y&G&R \\
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\hline R&Y&G&R&Y&G \\
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\hline G&R&Y&G&R&Y \\
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\hline Y&G&R&Y&G&R \\
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\hline
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\end{tabular}</cmath>
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We can take the top <math>n</math>-by-<math>n</math> grid of this board as a coloring not satisfying the conditions.
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For <math>n\geq7</math>, we note that each row or column must have at least one color with 3 or more squares by the pigeonhole principle, so our answer is 7.
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==See also==
 
==See also==
 
*[[2006 Romanian NMO Problems]]
 
*[[2006 Romanian NMO Problems]]
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[[Category:Olympiad Combinatorics Problems]]

Latest revision as of 02:48, 18 March 2009

Problem

A square of side $n$ is formed from $n^2$ unit squares, each colored in red, yellow or green. Find minimal $n$, such that for each coloring, there exists a line and a column with at least 3 unit squares of the same color (on the same line or column).

Solution

For $n\leq6$, consider this coloring for a 6x6 board:

\[\begin{tabular}{|c|c|c|c|c|c|} \hline R&Y&G&R&Y&G \\ \hline G&R&Y&G&R&Y \\ \hline Y&G&R&Y&G&R \\ \hline R&Y&G&R&Y&G \\ \hline G&R&Y&G&R&Y \\ \hline Y&G&R&Y&G&R \\ \hline \end{tabular}\]

We can take the top $n$-by-$n$ grid of this board as a coloring not satisfying the conditions. For $n\geq7$, we note that each row or column must have at least one color with 3 or more squares by the pigeonhole principle, so our answer is 7.

See also

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