# Difference between revisions of "2011 AIME II Problems/Problem 3"

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== Solution == | == Solution == | ||

+ | ===Solution 1=== | ||

The average angle in an 18-gon is <math>160^\circ</math>. In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to <math>160^\circ</math>. Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer <math>d</math>, the middle two terms are <math>(160-d)^\circ</math> and <math>(160+d)^\circ</math>. Since the step is <math>2d</math> the last term of the sequence is <math>(160 + 17d)^\circ</math>, which must be less than <math>180^\circ</math>, since the polygon is convex. This gives <math>17d < 20</math>, so the only suitable positive integer <math>d</math> is 1. The first term is then <math>(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143^\circ.}</math> | The average angle in an 18-gon is <math>160^\circ</math>. In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to <math>160^\circ</math>. Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer <math>d</math>, the middle two terms are <math>(160-d)^\circ</math> and <math>(160+d)^\circ</math>. Since the step is <math>2d</math> the last term of the sequence is <math>(160 + 17d)^\circ</math>, which must be less than <math>180^\circ</math>, since the polygon is convex. This gives <math>17d < 20</math>, so the only suitable positive integer <math>d</math> is 1. The first term is then <math>(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143^\circ.}</math> | ||

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+ | ===Solution 2=== | ||

+ | You could also solve this problem with exterior angles. Exterior angles of any polygon add up to <math>360^{\circ}</math>. Since there are <math>18</math> exterior angles in an 18-gon, the average measure of an exterior angles is <math>\frac{360}{18}=20^\circ</math>. We know from the problem that since the exterior angles must be in an arithmetic sequence, the median and average of them is <math>20</math>. Since there are even number of exterior angles, the middle two must be <math>19^\circ</math> and <math>21^\circ</math>, and the difference between terms must be <math>2</math>. Check to make sure the smallest exterior angle is greater than <math>0</math>: <math>19-2(8)=19-16=3^\circ</math>. It is, so the greatest exterior angle is <math>21+2(8)=21+16=37^\circ</math> and the smallest interior angle is <math>180-37=\boxed{143}</math>. |

## Revision as of 12:07, 21 August 2011

## Problem 3

The degree measures of the angles in a convex 18-sided polygon form an increasing arithmetic sequence with integer values. Find the degree measure of the smallest angle.

## Solution

### Solution 1

The average angle in an 18-gon is . In an arithmetic sequence the average is the same as the median, so the middle two terms of the sequence average to . Thus for some positive (the sequence is increasing and thus non-constant) integer , the middle two terms are and . Since the step is the last term of the sequence is , which must be less than , since the polygon is convex. This gives , so the only suitable positive integer is 1. The first term is then $(160-17)^\circ = \fbox{143^\circ.}$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Missing $ inserted.)

### Solution 2

You could also solve this problem with exterior angles. Exterior angles of any polygon add up to . Since there are exterior angles in an 18-gon, the average measure of an exterior angles is . We know from the problem that since the exterior angles must be in an arithmetic sequence, the median and average of them is . Since there are even number of exterior angles, the middle two must be and , and the difference between terms must be . Check to make sure the smallest exterior angle is greater than : . It is, so the greatest exterior angle is and the smallest interior angle is .