Difference between revisions of "2011 AIME II Problems/Problem 4"

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== Problem ==
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In triangle <math>ABC</math>, <math>AB=\frac{20}{11} AC</math>. The angle bisector of <math>\ang A</math> intersects <math>BC</math> at point <math>D</math>, and point <math>M</math> is the midpoint of <math>AD</math>. Let <math>P</math> be the point of the intersection of <math>AC</math> and <math>BM</math>. The ratio of <math>CP</math> to <math>PA</math> can be expressed in the form <math>\dfrac{m}{n}</math>, where <math>m</math> and <math>n</math> are relatively prime positive integers. Find <math>m+n</math>.
  
In triangle ABC, AB=(20/11)AC. The angle bisector of angle A intersects BC at point D, and point M is the midpoint of AD. Let P be the point of intersection of AC and the line BM. The ratio of CP to PA can be expresses in the form m/n, where m and n are relatively prime positive integers. Find m+n.
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__TOC__
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== Solution ==
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=== Solution 1 ===
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<asy>
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pointpen = black; pathpen = linewidth(0.7);
  
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pair A = (0,0), C= (11,0), B=IP(CR(A,20),CR(C,18)), D = IP(B--C,CR(B,20/31*abs(B-C))), M = (A+D)/2, P = IP(M--2*M-B, A--C), D2 = IP(D--D+P-B, A--C);
Solution:
 
  
I have no idea, but can be solved with relatively simple geometry. (I ran out of time to solve this one)
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D(MP("A",D(A))--MP("B",D(B),N)--MP("C",D(C))--cycle); D(A--MP("D",D(D),NE)--MP("D'",D(D2))); D(B--MP("P",D(P))); D(MP("M",M,NW)); MP("20",(B+D)/2,ENE); MP("11",(C+D)/2,ENE);
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</asy> Let <math>D'</math> be on <math>\overline{AC}</math> such that <math>BP \parallel DD'</math>. It follows that <math>\triangle BPC \sim \triangle DD'C</math>, so <cmath>\frac{PC}{D'C} = 1 + \frac{BD}{DC} = 1 + \frac{AB}{AC} = \frac{31}{11}</cmath> by the [[Angle-Bisector Theorem]]. Similarly, we see by the midline theorem that <math>AP = PD'</math>. Thus, <cmath>\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{1}{\frac{PD'}{PC}} = \frac{1}{1 - \frac{D'C}{PC}} = \frac{31}{20},</cmath> and <math>m+n = \boxed{051}</math>.
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=== Solution 2 ===
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Assign [[mass points]] as follows: by Angle-Bisector Theorem, <math>BD / DC = 20/11</math>, so we assign <math>m(B) = 11, m(C) = 20, m(D) = 31</math>. Since <math>AM = MD</math>, then <math>m(A) = 31</math>, and <math>\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{m(A) }{ m(C)} = \frac{31}{20}</math>.
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=== Solution 3 ===
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By [[Menelaus' Theorem]] on <math>\triangle ACD</math> with [[transversal]] <math>PB</math>, <cmath>1 = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \frac{AM}{MD} \cdot \frac{DB}{CB} = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \left(\frac{1}{1+\frac{AC}{AB}}\right) \quad \Longrightarrow \quad \frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{31}{20}.</cmath>
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[/hide]
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== See also ==
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{{AIME box|year = 2011|n=II|num-b=3|num-a=5}}
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[[Category:Intermediate Geometry Problems]]

Revision as of 12:57, 31 March 2011

Problem

In triangle $ABC$, $AB=\frac{20}{11} AC$. The angle bisector of $\ang A$ (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.) intersects $BC$ at point $D$, and point $M$ is the midpoint of $AD$. Let $P$ be the point of the intersection of $AC$ and $BM$. The ratio of $CP$ to $PA$ can be expressed in the form $\dfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m+n$.

Solution

Solution 1

[asy] pointpen = black; pathpen = linewidth(0.7);  pair A = (0,0), C= (11,0), B=IP(CR(A,20),CR(C,18)), D = IP(B--C,CR(B,20/31*abs(B-C))), M = (A+D)/2, P = IP(M--2*M-B, A--C), D2 = IP(D--D+P-B, A--C);  D(MP("A",D(A))--MP("B",D(B),N)--MP("C",D(C))--cycle); D(A--MP("D",D(D),NE)--MP("D'",D(D2))); D(B--MP("P",D(P))); D(MP("M",M,NW)); MP("20",(B+D)/2,ENE); MP("11",(C+D)/2,ENE);  [/asy] Let $D'$ be on $\overline{AC}$ such that $BP \parallel DD'$. It follows that $\triangle BPC \sim \triangle DD'C$, so \[\frac{PC}{D'C} = 1 + \frac{BD}{DC} = 1 + \frac{AB}{AC} = \frac{31}{11}\] by the Angle-Bisector Theorem. Similarly, we see by the midline theorem that $AP = PD'$. Thus, \[\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{1}{\frac{PD'}{PC}} = \frac{1}{1 - \frac{D'C}{PC}} = \frac{31}{20},\] and $m+n = \boxed{051}$.

Solution 2

Assign mass points as follows: by Angle-Bisector Theorem, $BD / DC = 20/11$, so we assign $m(B) = 11, m(C) = 20, m(D) = 31$. Since $AM = MD$, then $m(A) = 31$, and $\frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{m(A) }{ m(C)} = \frac{31}{20}$.

Solution 3

By Menelaus' Theorem on $\triangle ACD$ with transversal $PB$, \[1 = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \frac{AM}{MD} \cdot \frac{DB}{CB} = \frac{CP}{PA} \cdot \left(\frac{1}{1+\frac{AC}{AB}}\right) \quad \Longrightarrow \quad \frac{CP}{PA} = \frac{31}{20}.\] [/hide]

See also

2011 AIME II (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
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