# 2012 USAMO Problems

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## Day 1

### Problem 1

Find all integers $n \ge 3$ such that among any $n$ positive real numbers $a_1$, $a_2$, $\dots$, $a_n$ with $$\max(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n) \le n \cdot \min(a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n),$$ there exist three that are the side lengths of an acute triangle.

### Problem 2

A circle is divided into $432$ congruent arcs by $432$ points. The points are colored in four colors such that $108$ points are colored red, $108$ points are colored green, $108$ points are colored blue and the remaining $108$ points are colored yellow. Prove that one can choose three points of each color in such a way that the four triangles formed by the chosen points of the same color are congruent.

### Problem 3

Determine which integers $n > 1$ have the property that there exists an infinite sequence $a_1$, $a_2$, $a_3$, $\dots$ of nonzero integers such that the equality $$a_k + 2a_{2k} + \dots + na_{nk} = 0$$ holds for every positive integer $k$.

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Find all functions $f : \mathbb{Z}^+ \to \mathbb{Z}^+$ (where $\mathbb{Z}^+$ is the set of positive integers) such that $f(n!) = f(n)!$ for all positive integers $n$ and such that $m - n$ divides $f(m) - f(n)$ for all distinct positive integers $m$, $n$.

### Problem 5

Let $P$ be a point in the plane of triangle $ABC$, and $\gamma$ a line passing through $P$. Let $A'$, $B'$, $C'$ be the points where the reflections of lines $PA$, $PB$, $PC$ with respect to $\gamma$ intersect lines $BC$, $AC$, $AB$, respectively. Prove that $A'$, $B'$, $C'$ are collinear.

### Problem 6

For integer $n \ge 2$, let $x_1$, $x_2$, $\dots$, $x_n$ be real numbers satisfying $$x_1 + x_2 + \dots + x_n = 0, \quad \text{and} \quad x_1^2 + x_2^2 + \dots + x_n^2 = 1.$$ For each subset $A \subseteq \{1, 2, \dots, n\}$, define $$S_A = \sum_{i \in A} x_i.$$ (If $A$ is the empty set, then $S_A = 0$.)

Prove that for any positive number $\lambda$, the number of sets $A$ satisfying $S_A \ge \lambda$ is at most $2^{n - 3}/\lambda^2$. For what choices of $x_1$, $x_2$, $\dots$, $x_n$, $\lambda$ does equality hold?

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 