2014 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 21

Revision as of 00:37, 29 January 2021 by Sugar rush (talk | contribs)
(diff) ← Older revision | Latest revision (diff) | Newer revision → (diff)

Problem

For every real number $x$, let $\lfloor x\rfloor$ denote the greatest integer not exceeding $x$, and let \[f(x)=\lfloor x\rfloor(2014^{x-\lfloor x\rfloor}-1).\] The set of all numbers $x$ such that $1\leq x<2014$ and $f(x)\leq 1$ is a union of disjoint intervals. What is the sum of the lengths of those intervals?

$\textbf{(A) }1\qquad \textbf{(B) }\dfrac{\log 2015}{\log 2014}\qquad \textbf{(C) }\dfrac{\log 2014}{\log 2013}\qquad \textbf{(D) }\dfrac{2014}{2013}\qquad \textbf{(E) }2014^{\frac1{2014}}\qquad$

Solution

Let $\lfloor x\rfloor=k$ for some integer $1\leq k\leq 2013$. Then we can rewrite $f(x)$ as $k(2014^{x-k}-1)$. In order for this to be less than or equal to $1$, we need $2014^{x-k}-1\leq\dfrac1k\implies x\leq k+\log_{2014}\left(\dfrac{k+1}k\right)$. Combining this with the fact that $\lfloor x\rfloor =k$ gives that $x\in\left[k,k+\log_{2014}\left(\dfrac{k+1}k\right)\right]$, and so the length of the interval is $\log_{2014}\left(\dfrac{k+1}k\right)$. We want the sum of all possible intervals such that the inequality holds true; since all of these intervals must be disjoint, we can sum from $k=1$ to $k=2013$ to get that the desired sum is \[\sum_{i=1}^{2013}\log_{2014}\left(\dfrac{i+1}i\right)=\log_{2014}\left(\prod_{i=1}^{2013}\dfrac{i+1}i\right)=\log_{2014}\left(\dfrac{2014}1\right)=\boxed{1\textbf{ (A)}}.\]

Video Solution by Richard Rusczyk

https://artofproblemsolving.com/videos/amc/2014amc12a/380

~ dolphin7

Video Solution by Punxsutawney Phil

https://youtube.com/watch?v=MI3ax4WJBZA

See Also

2014 AMC 12A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 20
Followed by
Problem 22
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS