Difference between revisions of "2017 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 16"
Line 1: | Line 1: | ||
− | ==Problem | + | ==Problem== |
The number <math>21!=51,090,942,171,709,440,000</math> has over <math>60,000</math> positive integer divisors. One of them is chosen at random. What is the probability that it is odd? | The number <math>21!=51,090,942,171,709,440,000</math> has over <math>60,000</math> positive integer divisors. One of them is chosen at random. What is the probability that it is odd? | ||
Latest revision as of 13:55, 15 February 2021
Problem
The number has over positive integer divisors. One of them is chosen at random. What is the probability that it is odd?
Solution
If a factor of is odd, that means it contains no factors of . We can find the number of factors of two in by counting the number multiples of , , , and that are less than or equal to (Legendre's Formula). After some quick counting we find that this number is . If the prime factorization of has factors of , there are choices for each divisor for how many factors of should be included ( to inclusive). The probability that a randomly chosen factor is odd is the same as if the number of factors of is which is .
Solution by: vedadehhc
Solution 2
We can write as its prime factorization:
Each exponent of these prime numbers are one less than the number of factors at play here. This makes sense; is going to have factors: , and the other exponents will behave identically.
In other words, has factors.
We are looking for the probability that a randomly chosen factor of will be odd--numbers that do not contain multiples of as factors.
From our earlier observation, the only factors of that are even are ones with at least one multiplier of , so our probability of finding an odd factor becomes the following:
Solution submitted by David Kim
Video Solution
-MistyMathMusic
See Also
2017 AMC 12B (Problems • Answer Key • Resources) | |
Preceded by Problem 15 |
Followed by Problem 17 |
1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 • 7 • 8 • 9 • 10 • 11 • 12 • 13 • 14 • 15 • 16 • 17 • 18 • 19 • 20 • 21 • 22 • 23 • 24 • 25 | |
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions |
The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions.