2017 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 24

Problem

Quadrilateral $ABCD$ has right angles at $B$ and $C$, $\triangle ABC \sim \triangle BCD$, and $AB > BC$. There is a point $E$ in the interior of $ABCD$ such that $\triangle ABC \sim \triangle CEB$ and the area of $\triangle AED$ is $17$ times the area of $\triangle CEB$. What is $\tfrac{AB}{BC}$?

$\textbf{(A) } 1+\sqrt{2} \qquad \textbf{(B) } 2 + \sqrt{2} \qquad \textbf{(C) } \sqrt{17} \qquad \textbf{(D) } 2 + \sqrt{5} \qquad \textbf{(E) } 1 + 2\sqrt{3}$

Solution 1

Let $CD=1$, $BC=x$, and $AB=x^2$. Note that $AB/BC=x$. By the Pythagorean Theorem, $BD=\sqrt{x^2+1}$. Since $\triangle BCD \sim \triangle ABC \sim \triangle CEB$, the ratios of side lengths must be equal. Since $BC=x$, $CE=\frac{x^2}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}$ and $BE=\frac{x}{\sqrt{x^2+1}}$. Let F be a point on $\overline{BC}$ such that $\overline{EF}$ is an altitude of triangle $CEB$. Note that $\triangle CEB \sim \triangle CFE \sim \triangle EFB$. Therefore, $BF=\frac{x}{x^2+1}$ and $CF=\frac{x^3}{x^2+1}$. Since $\overline{CF}$ and $\overline{BF}$ form altitudes of triangles $CED$ and $BEA$, respectively, the areas of these triangles can be calculated. Additionally, the area of triangle $BEC$ can be calculated, as it is a right triangle. Solving for each of these yields: $$[BEC]=[CED]=[BEA]=(x^3)/(2(x^2+1))$$ $$[ABCD]=[AED]+[DEC]+[CEB]+[BEA]$$ $$(AB+CD)(BC)/2= 17*[CEB]+ [CEB] + [CEB] + [CEB]$$ $$(x^3+x)/2=(20x^3)/(2(x^2+1))$$ $$(x)(x^2+1)=20x^3/(x^2+1)$$ $$(x^2+1)^2=20x^2$$ $$x^4-18x^2+1=0 \implies x^2=9+4\sqrt{5}=4+2(2\sqrt{5})+5$$ Therefore, the answer is $\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 2+\sqrt{5}}$

Solution 2

Draw line $FG$ through $E$, with $F$ on $BC$ and $G$ on $AD$, $FG \parallel AB$. WLOG let $CD=1$, $CB=x$, $AB=x^2$. By weighted average $FG=\frac{1+x^4}{1+x^2}$.

Meanwhile, $FE:EG=[\triangle CBE]:[\triangle ADE]=1:17$. This follows from comparing the ratios of triangle DEG to CFE and triangle AEG to FEB, both pairs in which the two triangles share a height perpendicular to FG, and have base ratio $EG:FE$.

$FE=\frac{x^2}{1+x^2}$. We obtain $\frac{1+x^4}{1+x^2}=\frac{18x^2}{1+x^2}$, namely $x^4-18x^2+1=0$.

The rest is the same as Solution 1.

Solution 3

Let $A=(-1,4a), B=(-1,0), C=(1,0), D=\bigg(1,\frac{1}{a}\bigg)$. Then from the similar triangles condition, we compute $CE=\frac{4a}{\sqrt{4a^2+1}}$ and $BE=\frac{2}{\sqrt{4a^2+1}}$. Hence, the $y$-coordinate of $E$ is just $\frac{BE\cdot CE}{BC}=\frac{4a}{4a^2+1}$. Since $E$ lies on the unit circle, we can compute the $x$ coordinate as $\frac{1-4a^2}{4a^2+1}$. By Shoelace, we want $$\frac{1}{2}\det\begin{bmatrix} -1 & 4a & 1\\ \frac{1-4a^2}{4a^2+1} & \frac{4a}{4a^2+1} & 1\\ 1 & \frac{1}{a} & 1 \end{bmatrix}=17\cdot\frac{1}{2}\cdot 2 \cdot \frac{4a}{4a^2+1}$$Factoring out denominators and expanding by minors, this is equivalent to $$\frac{32a^4-8a^2+2}{2a(4a^2+1)}=\frac{68a}{4a^2+1} \Longrightarrow 16a^4-72a^2+1=0$$This factors as $(4a^2-8a-1)(4a^2+8a-1)=0$, so $a=1+\frac{\sqrt{5}}{2}$ and so the answer is $\textbf{(D) \ }$.

Notes

1) $\sqrt{17}$ is the most relevant answer choice because it shares numbers with the givens of the problem.

2) It's a very good guess to replace finding the area of triangle AED with the area of the triangle DAF, where F is the projection of D onto AB(then find the closest answer choice).