Carl Friedrich Gauss
Among his many accomplishments were quickly calculating the sum of the integers 1-100 in the first grade and proving that a 17-gon -or any n-gon where n is a Fermat prime- was constructable. He even asked for a 17-gon to be put on his tombstone.
Gauss has several mathematical and physics terms named after him including the Gaussian integers, Gaussian distributions, and Gauss's Law.
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