Difference between revisions of "Fibonacci sequence"

m
(11 intermediate revisions by 5 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
{{WotWAnnounce|week=Dec 6-12}}
+
The '''Fibonacci sequence''' is a [[sequence]] of [[integer]]s in which the first and second terms are both equal to 1 and each subsequent term is the sum of the two preceding it.  The first few terms are <math>1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,...</math>.
  
The '''Fibonacci sequence''' is a [[sequence]] of [[integer]]s in which the first and second term are both equal to 1, and each subsequent term is the sum of the two preceding it. Often, there is a zero-th term added in equal to 0. The first few terms are <br><math>0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,...</math>.   
+
The Fibonacci sequence can be written [[recursion|recursively]] as <math>F_1 = F_2 = 1</math> and <math>F_n=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2}</math> for <math>n \geq 3</math>.  This is the simplest nontrivial example of a [[linear recursion]] with constant coefficients.  There is also an explicit formula [[#Binet's formula|below]].
  
The Fibonacci sequence can be written [[recursion|recursively]] as <math>F_n=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2}</math>. There is also an explicit definition [[#Binet's formula|below]].
+
Readers should be wary: some authors give the Fibonacci sequence with the [[initial condition]]s <math>F_0 = F_1 = 1</math> (or equivalently <math>F_1 = 1, F_2 = 2</math>). This change in [[indexing of a sequence | indexing]] does not affect the actual numbers in the sequence, but it does change which member of the sequence is refered to by the symbol <math>F_n</math> and so also changes the appearance of certain [[identity | identities]] involving the Fibonacci numbers.  
  
== Phi ==
+
== Running backwards ==
 +
As with many linear recursions, we can run the Fibonacci sequence backwards by solving its recursion relation for the term of smallest index, in this case <math>F_{n - 2} = F_{n} - F_{n - 1}</math>.  This allows us to compute, for example, that <math>F_0 = F_2 - F_1 = 0</math>, <math>F_{-1} = 1</math>, <math>F_{-2} = -2</math>, and so on.  Because these preceding terms are uniquely defined by the recursion, one frequently sees the definition of the Fibonacci sequence given in the form <math>F_0 = 0</math>, <math>F_1 = 1</math> and <math>F_n = F_{n - 1} + F_{n - 2}</math> for <math>n \geq 2</math>.  In general, one can show that <math>F_n = (-1)^{n+1}F_{-n}</math>.
  
Ratios between successive terms, <math>\frac{1}{1}</math>, <math>\frac{2}{1}</math>, <math>\frac{3}{2}</math>, <math>\frac{5}{3}</math>, <math>\frac{8}{5}</math>, tend towards the limit [[phi]].
+
== Phi and Binet's formula==
 +
{{main|Binet's formula}}
  
== Binet's formula ==
+
The ratios <math>\frac{1}{1}</math>, <math>\frac{2}{1}</math>, <math>\frac{3}{2}</math>, <math>\frac{5}{3}</math>, <math>\frac{8}{5}</math>, ..., between successive terms of the sequence tend towards the limit <math>\frac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}</math>, a constant often denoted <math>\varphi</math> (the Greek letter [[phi]]).  One possible explanation for this fact is that the Fibonacci numbers are given explicitly by ''Binet's formula''.  It is
 +
<math>F_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n-\left(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n\right)</math>.
 +
(Note that this formula is valid for all integers <math>n</math>.)
 +
It is so named because it was derived by mathematician Jacques Philippe Marie Binet, though it was already known by Abraham de Moivre.
  
'''Binet's formula''' is an explicit formula used to find any nth term.
+
== Identities ==
It is <math>\frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n-\left(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n\right)</math>.
+
The most important identity regarding the Fibonacci sequence is its recursive definition, <math>F_{n+1} = F_n + F_{n-1}</math>. The following identities involving the Fibonacci numbers can be proved by [[induction]].
 +
 
 +
*<math>F_0 + F_1 + \cdots + F_{n} = F_{n+2} - 1</math>
 +
*<math>F_0 - F_1 + F_2 - \cdots - F_{2n-1} + F_{2n} = F_{2n-1} - 1</math>
 +
*<math>F_0^2 + F_1^2 + F_2^2 + \cdots + F_n^2 = F_n \cdot F_{n+1}</math>
 +
*<math>F_{n-1}\cdot F_{n+1} = F_{n}^2 + (-1)^n</math>
 +
*<math>F_{m+n+1} = F_{m+1} \cdot F_{n+1} + F_{m} \cdot F_n</math>
  
 
==Problems==
 
==Problems==
 
=== Introductory ===
 
=== Introductory ===
 
# The Fibonacci sequence <math>1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,\ldots </math> starts with two 1s, and each term afterwards is the sum of its two predecessors. Which one of the ten [[digit]]s is the last to appear in the units position of a number in the Fibonacci sequence?<br><br><math> \mathrm{(A) \ 0 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 4 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 6 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 7 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 9 }  </math><div style="text-align:right">([[2000 AMC 12 Problems/Problem 4|2000 AMC 12, Problem 4]])</div>
 
# The Fibonacci sequence <math>1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,\ldots </math> starts with two 1s, and each term afterwards is the sum of its two predecessors. Which one of the ten [[digit]]s is the last to appear in the units position of a number in the Fibonacci sequence?<br><br><math> \mathrm{(A) \ 0 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 4 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 6 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 7 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 9 }  </math><div style="text-align:right">([[2000 AMC 12 Problems/Problem 4|2000 AMC 12, Problem 4]])</div>
 +
# A colony has <math>1</math> rabbit. A rabbit produces one offspring every month. An offspring rabbit takes one month to grow up. Find a formula for the number of rabbits in the <math>n</math>th month.
 +
## How about if the colony starts with <math>a</math> rabbits and <math>b</math> offspring?
 +
## Use this result to prove the identity <math>F_{m+n+1} = F_{m+1} \cdot F_{n+1} + F_{m} \cdot F_n</math>.
 +
# Find <math>\gcd(F_n,F_{n+1})</math>.
 +
# Prove the above [[#Identities|identites]].
 +
 
=== Intermediate ===
 
=== Intermediate ===
 
# Seven line segments, with lengths no greater than 10 inches, and no shorter than 1 inch, are given. Show that one can choose three of them to represent the sides of a triangle. <div style="text-align:right">(Manhattan Mathematical Olympiad 2004)</div>
 
# Seven line segments, with lengths no greater than 10 inches, and no shorter than 1 inch, are given. Show that one can choose three of them to represent the sides of a triangle. <div style="text-align:right">(Manhattan Mathematical Olympiad 2004)</div>
 
# Except for the first two terms, each term of the sequence <math>1000, x, 1000 - x,\ldots</math> is obtained by subtracting the preceding term from the one before that.  The last term of the sequence is the first [[negative]] term encounted.  What positive integer <math>x</math> produces a sequence of maximum length? <div style="text-align:right">([[1998 AIME Problems/Problem 8|1998 AIME, Problem 8]])</div>
 
# Except for the first two terms, each term of the sequence <math>1000, x, 1000 - x,\ldots</math> is obtained by subtracting the preceding term from the one before that.  The last term of the sequence is the first [[negative]] term encounted.  What positive integer <math>x</math> produces a sequence of maximum length? <div style="text-align:right">([[1998 AIME Problems/Problem 8|1998 AIME, Problem 8]])</div>
 
# A [[fair]] coin is to be tossed <math>10_{}^{}</math> times. Let <math>i/j^{}_{}</math>, in lowest terms, be the [[probability]] that heads never occur on consecutive tosses. Find <math>i+j_{}^{}</math>. <div style="text-align:right">([[1990 AIME Problems/Problem 9|1990 AIME, Problem 9]])</div>
 
# A [[fair]] coin is to be tossed <math>10_{}^{}</math> times. Let <math>i/j^{}_{}</math>, in lowest terms, be the [[probability]] that heads never occur on consecutive tosses. Find <math>i+j_{}^{}</math>. <div style="text-align:right">([[1990 AIME Problems/Problem 9|1990 AIME, Problem 9]])</div>
 +
#Find <math>a</math> if <math>a</math> and <math>b</math> are [[integer]]s such that <math>x^2 - x - 1</math> is a factor of <math>ax^{17} + bx^{16} + 1</math>. <div style="text-align:right">([[1998 AIME Problems/Problem 13|1998 AIME, Problem 13]])</div>
 +
 
=== Olympiad ===
 
=== Olympiad ===
 
# Determine the maximum value of <math>m^2 + n^2 </math>, where <math>m </math> and <math>n </math> are integers satisfying <math> m, n \in \{ 1,2, \ldots , 1981 \} </math> and <math>( n^2 - mn - m^2 )^2 = 1 </math>. <div style="text-align:right">([[1981 IMO Problems/Problem 3|1981 IMO, Problem 3]])</div>
 
# Determine the maximum value of <math>m^2 + n^2 </math>, where <math>m </math> and <math>n </math> are integers satisfying <math> m, n \in \{ 1,2, \ldots , 1981 \} </math> and <math>( n^2 - mn - m^2 )^2 = 1 </math>. <div style="text-align:right">([[1981 IMO Problems/Problem 3|1981 IMO, Problem 3]])</div>
Line 26: Line 45:
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
 
* [[Combinatorics]]
 
* [[Combinatorics]]
 +
* [[Lucas number]]
  
{{stub}}
+
[[Category:Combinatorics]]

Revision as of 13:23, 13 December 2007

The Fibonacci sequence is a sequence of integers in which the first and second terms are both equal to 1 and each subsequent term is the sum of the two preceding it. The first few terms are $1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55,...$.

The Fibonacci sequence can be written recursively as $F_1 = F_2 = 1$ and $F_n=F_{n-1}+F_{n-2}$ for $n \geq 3$. This is the simplest nontrivial example of a linear recursion with constant coefficients. There is also an explicit formula below.

Readers should be wary: some authors give the Fibonacci sequence with the initial conditions $F_0 = F_1 = 1$ (or equivalently $F_1 = 1, F_2 = 2$). This change in indexing does not affect the actual numbers in the sequence, but it does change which member of the sequence is refered to by the symbol $F_n$ and so also changes the appearance of certain identities involving the Fibonacci numbers.

Running backwards

As with many linear recursions, we can run the Fibonacci sequence backwards by solving its recursion relation for the term of smallest index, in this case $F_{n - 2} = F_{n} - F_{n - 1}$. This allows us to compute, for example, that $F_0 = F_2 - F_1 = 0$, $F_{-1} = 1$, $F_{-2} = -2$, and so on. Because these preceding terms are uniquely defined by the recursion, one frequently sees the definition of the Fibonacci sequence given in the form $F_0 = 0$, $F_1 = 1$ and $F_n = F_{n - 1} + F_{n - 2}$ for $n \geq 2$. In general, one can show that $F_n = (-1)^{n+1}F_{-n}$.

Phi and Binet's formula

Main article: Binet's formula

The ratios $\frac{1}{1}$, $\frac{2}{1}$, $\frac{3}{2}$, $\frac{5}{3}$, $\frac{8}{5}$, ..., between successive terms of the sequence tend towards the limit $\frac{1 + \sqrt{5}}{2}$, a constant often denoted $\varphi$ (the Greek letter phi). One possible explanation for this fact is that the Fibonacci numbers are given explicitly by Binet's formula. It is $F_n = \frac{1}{\sqrt{5}}\left(\left(\frac{1+\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n-\left(\frac{1-\sqrt{5}}{2}\right)^n\right)$. (Note that this formula is valid for all integers $n$.) It is so named because it was derived by mathematician Jacques Philippe Marie Binet, though it was already known by Abraham de Moivre.

Identities

The most important identity regarding the Fibonacci sequence is its recursive definition, $F_{n+1} = F_n + F_{n-1}$. The following identities involving the Fibonacci numbers can be proved by induction.

  • $F_0 + F_1 + \cdots + F_{n} = F_{n+2} - 1$
  • $F_0 - F_1 + F_2 - \cdots - F_{2n-1} + F_{2n} = F_{2n-1} - 1$
  • $F_0^2 + F_1^2 + F_2^2 + \cdots + F_n^2 = F_n \cdot F_{n+1}$
  • $F_{n-1}\cdot F_{n+1} = F_{n}^2 + (-1)^n$
  • $F_{m+n+1} = F_{m+1} \cdot F_{n+1} + F_{m} \cdot F_n$

Problems

Introductory

  1. The Fibonacci sequence $1,1,2,3,5,8,13,21,\ldots$ starts with two 1s, and each term afterwards is the sum of its two predecessors. Which one of the ten digits is the last to appear in the units position of a number in the Fibonacci sequence?

    $\mathrm{(A) \ 0 } \qquad \mathrm{(B) \ 4 } \qquad \mathrm{(C) \ 6 } \qquad \mathrm{(D) \ 7 } \qquad \mathrm{(E) \ 9 }$
  2. A colony has $1$ rabbit. A rabbit produces one offspring every month. An offspring rabbit takes one month to grow up. Find a formula for the number of rabbits in the $n$th month.
    1. How about if the colony starts with $a$ rabbits and $b$ offspring?
    2. Use this result to prove the identity $F_{m+n+1} = F_{m+1} \cdot F_{n+1} + F_{m} \cdot F_n$.
  3. Find $\gcd(F_n,F_{n+1})$.
  4. Prove the above identites.

Intermediate

  1. Seven line segments, with lengths no greater than 10 inches, and no shorter than 1 inch, are given. Show that one can choose three of them to represent the sides of a triangle.
    (Manhattan Mathematical Olympiad 2004)
  2. Except for the first two terms, each term of the sequence $1000, x, 1000 - x,\ldots$ is obtained by subtracting the preceding term from the one before that. The last term of the sequence is the first negative term encounted. What positive integer $x$ produces a sequence of maximum length?
  3. A fair coin is to be tossed $10_{}^{}$ times. Let $i/j^{}_{}$, in lowest terms, be the probability that heads never occur on consecutive tosses. Find $i+j_{}^{}$.
  4. Find $a$ if $a$ and $b$ are integers such that $x^2 - x - 1$ is a factor of $ax^{17} + bx^{16} + 1$.

Olympiad

  1. Determine the maximum value of $m^2 + n^2$, where $m$ and $n$ are integers satisfying $m, n \in \{ 1,2, \ldots , 1981 \}$ and $( n^2 - mn - m^2 )^2 = 1$.

See also

Invalid username
Login to AoPS