Difference between revisions of "Group"

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* For any <math>g\in G</math>, there exists <math>g^{-1}\in G</math> so that <math>gg^{-1}=g^{-1}g=e</math> ([[Inverse with respect to an operation | inverses]]).
 
* For any <math>g\in G</math>, there exists <math>g^{-1}\in G</math> so that <math>gg^{-1}=g^{-1}g=e</math> ([[Inverse with respect to an operation | inverses]]).
  
(Equivalently, a group is a [[monoid]]s with inverses.)
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(Equivalently, a group is a [[monoid]] with inverses.)
  
 
Note that the group operation need not be [[commutative]].  If the group operation is commutative, we call the group an [[abelian group]] (after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel).
 
Note that the group operation need not be [[commutative]].  If the group operation is commutative, we call the group an [[abelian group]] (after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel).

Revision as of 21:42, 1 September 2008

A group $G$ is a set of elements together with an operation $\cdot:G\times G\to G$ (the dot is frequently supressed, so $ab$ is written instead of $a\cdot b$) satisfying the following conditions:

(Equivalently, a group is a monoid with inverses.)

Note that the group operation need not be commutative. If the group operation is commutative, we call the group an abelian group (after the Norwegian mathematician Niels Henrik Abel).

Groups frequently arise as permutations or symmetries of collections of objects. For example, the rigid motions of $\mathbb{R}^2$ that fix a certain regular $n$-gon is a group, called the dihedral group and denoted in some texts $D_{2n}$ (since it has $2n$ elements) and in others $D_n$ (since it preserves a regular $n$-gon). Another example of a group is the symmetric group $S_n$ of all permutations of $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$.

See Also

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