For over 15 years, our Textbooks and Online School have been the cornerstone of the mathematical training of many of the top students in the world. Check out our schedule of upcoming classes to find a class that's right for you!

Difference between revisions of "LaTeX:Symbols"

(Bracketing Symbols)
(See Also)
 
(145 intermediate revisions by 60 users not shown)
Line 1: Line 1:
 
{{Latex}}
 
{{Latex}}
  
This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.
+
This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.
 +
 
 +
== Finding Other Symbols ==
 +
 
 +
Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:
 +
<ul>
 +
<li>
 +
[http://detexify.kirelabs.org/classify.html Detexify] is an app which allows you to draw the symbol you'd like and shows you the <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> code for it!
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 
 +
<li>
 +
MathJax (what allows us to use <math>\text{\LaTeX}</math> on the web) maintains a [http://docs.mathjax.org/en/latest/tex.html#supported-latex-commands list of supported commands].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
 
 +
<li>
 +
[http://mirrors.ctan.org/info/symbols/comprehensive/symbols-a4.pdf The Comprehensive LaTeX Symbol List].
 +
<br/><br/></li>
 +
</ul>
 +
 
 +
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  
 
==Operators==
 
==Operators==
Line 23: Line 42:
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|<math>\bullet</math>||\bullet||<math>\diamond</math>||\diamond||<math>\lhd</math>||\lhd
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||<math>\unrhd</math>||\unrhd
+
|<math>\rhd</math>||\rhd||<math>\unlhd</math>||\unlhd||[[Image:Unrhd.gif]]||\unrhd
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
 
|<math>\oslash</math>||\oslash||<math>\odot</math>||\odot||<math>\bigcirc</math>||\bigcirc
Line 31: Line 50:
 
|<math>\bigtriangledown</math>||\bigtriangledown||<math>\Box</math>||\Box||<math>\triangleright</math>||\triangleright
 
|<math>\bigtriangledown</math>||\bigtriangledown||<math>\Box</math>||\Box||<math>\triangleright</math>||\triangleright
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr
+
|<math>\setminus</math>||\setminus||<math>\wr</math>||\wr||<math>\sqrt{x}</math>||\sqrt{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>x^{\circ}</math>||x^{\circ}||<math>\triangledown</math>||\triangledown||<math>\sqrt[n]{x}</math>||\sqrt[n]{x}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>a^x</math>||a^x||<math>a^{xyz}</math>||a^{xyz}
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 60: Line 83:
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
| <math>\preceq</math>||\preceq||<math>\succeq</math>||\succeq||<math>\models</math>||\models
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel|| <math>\|</math> || <nowiki>\|</nowiki>
+
| <math>\perp</math>||\perp||<math>\parallel</math>||\parallel||
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid
+
| <math>\mid</math>||\mid||<math>\bumpeq</math>||\bumpeq||
 
|}
 
|}
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a few examples, plus a few other negations; it works for many of the others as well.
+
Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.
{| class="latextable"
+
 
 +
{| class="latextable"}
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 
|-
 
|-
Line 72: Line 96:
 
| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
| <math>\nsim</math>||\nsim||<math>\ncong</math>||\ncong||<math>\nparallel</math>||\nparallel
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not=
+
| <math>\not<</math>||\not<||<math>\not></math>||\not>||<math>\not=</math>||\not= or \neq
 
|-
 
|-
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
 
| <math>\not\le</math>||\not\le||<math>\not\ge</math>||\not\ge||<math>\not\sim</math>||\not\sim
Line 84: Line 108:
 
| <math>\lneqq</math>||\lneqq||<math>\gneqq</math>||\gneqq
 
| <math>\lneqq</math>||\lneqq||<math>\gneqq</math>||\gneqq
 
|}
 
|}
 +
 +
To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in <math>\LaTeX</math>.
  
 
==Greek Letters==
 
==Greek Letters==
Line 116: Line 142:
 
| <math>\Xi</math>||\Xi||<math>\Pi</math>||\Pi||<math>\Sigma</math>||\Sigma||<math>\Upsilon</math>||\Upsilon
 
| <math>\Xi</math>||\Xi||<math>\Pi</math>||\Pi||<math>\Sigma</math>||\Sigma||<math>\Upsilon</math>||\Upsilon
 
|-
 
|-
| <math>\Phi</math>||\Phi||<math>\Psi</math>||\Psi
+
| <math>\Phi</math>||\Phi||<math>\Psi</math>||\Psi||<math>\Omega</math>||\Omega
 
|}
 
|}
  
==Arrows==
+
 
 +
== Arrows ==
 +
 
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
Line 157: Line 185:
 
|<math>\swarrow</math>||\swarrow||<math>\nwarrow</math>||\nwarrow
 
|<math>\swarrow</math>||\swarrow||<math>\nwarrow</math>||\nwarrow
 
|}
 
|}
 +
(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)
  
 
==Dots==
 
==Dots==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!
 +
|-     
 +
|<math>\cdot</math>||\cdot|| |<math>\vdots</math>||\vdots|| 
 +
|-       
 +
|<math>\dots</math>||\dots|| |<math>\ddots</math>||\ddots||
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\ldots 2</math>||\ldots 2||<math>\vdots</math>||\vdots||<math>\cdots 2</math>||\cdots 2||<math>\ddots</math>||\ddots
+
|<math>\cdots</math>||\cdots|| |<math>\iddots</math>||\iddots||
 +
 
 
|}
 
|}
(The '2's after \ldots and \cdots are only present to make the distinction between the two clear.)
 
  
 
==Accents==
 
==Accents==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\hat{x}</math>||\hat{x}||<math>\check{x}</math>||\check{x}||<math>\dot{x}</math>||\dot{x}
 
|<math>\hat{x}</math>||\hat{x}||<math>\check{x}</math>||\check{x}||<math>\dot{x}</math>||\dot{x}
Line 176: Line 209:
 
|<math>\grave{x}</math>||\grave{x}||<math>\tilde{x}</math>||\tilde{x}||<math>\mathring{x}</math>||\mathring{x}
 
|<math>\grave{x}</math>||\grave{x}||<math>\tilde{x}</math>||\tilde{x}||<math>\mathring{x}</math>||\mathring{x}
 
|-
 
|-
|\<math>\bar{x}</math>||\bar{x}||<math>\vec{x}</math>||\vec{x}
+
|<math>\bar{x}</math>||\bar{x}||<math>\vec{x}</math>||\vec{x}
 
|}
 
|}
 
When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:
 
When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:
Line 188: Line 221:
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\widehat{3+x}</math>||\widehat{3+x}||<math>\widetilde{abc}</math>||\widetilde{abc}
+
|<math>\widehat{7+x}</math>||\widehat{7+x}||<math>\widetilde{abc}</math>||\widetilde{abc}
 
|}
 
|}
  
 
==Others==
 
==Others==
 
{| class="latextable"
 
{| class="latextable"
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
+
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command                                                                    
 
|-
 
|-
 
|<math>\infty</math>||\infty||<math>\triangle</math>||\triangle||<math>\angle</math>||\angle
 
|<math>\infty</math>||\infty||<math>\triangle</math>||\triangle||<math>\angle</math>||\angle
Line 217: Line 250:
 
|<math>\clubsuit</math>||\clubsuit||<math>\diamondsuit</math>||\diamondsuit||<math>\heartsuit</math>||\heartsuit
 
|<math>\clubsuit</math>||\clubsuit||<math>\diamondsuit</math>||\diamondsuit||<math>\heartsuit</math>||\heartsuit
 
|-
 
|-
|<math>\spadesuit</math>||\spadesuit||<math>\Join</math>||\Join||<math>\blacksquare</math>||\blacksquare
+
|[[Image:Spadesuit.gif]]||\spadesuit||<math>\Join</math>||\Join||<math>\blacksquare</math>||\blacksquare
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\S</math>||\S||<math>\P</math>||\P||<math>\copyright</math>||\copyright
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\pounds</math>||\pounds||<math>\overarc{ABC}</math>||\overarc{ABC}||<math>\underarc{XYZ}</math>||\underarc{XYZ}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigstar</math>||\bigstar||<math>\in</math>||\in||<math>\cup</math>||\cup
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\square</math>||\square||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\smiley</math>||\smiley||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\mathbb{R}</math>||\mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\checkmark</math>||\checkmark||
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\cancer</math>||\cancer||
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
==Command Symbols==
 +
Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\textdollar</math>||\textdollar or \$||<math>\&</math>||\&||<math>\%</math>||\%||<math>\#</math>||\#
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\_</math>||\_||<math>\{</math>||\{||<math>\}</math>||\}||<math>\backslash</math>||\backslash
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
(Warning: Using <nowiki>$</nowiki> for <math>\textdollar</math> will result in <math>\$</math>. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of <math>\LaTeX</math> this is not always a problem.)
 +
 
 +
==European Language Symbols==
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command!!Symbol!!Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\oe}</math>||{\oe}||<math>{\ae}</math>||{\ae}||<math>{\o}</math>||{\o}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\OE}</math>||{\OE}||<math>{\AE}</math>||{\AE}||<math>{\AA}</math>||{\AA}||<math>{\O}</math>||{\O}
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\l}</math>||{\l}||<math>{\ss}</math>||{\ss}||<math>\text{!`}</math>||!`
 +
|-
 +
|<math>{\L}</math>||{\L}||<math>{\SS}</math>||{\SS}||
 
|}
 
|}
  
Line 235: Line 309:
 
You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like
 
You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like
  
\displaystyle (1 + \frac{a}{x} )^2
+
:<tt>(\frac{a}{x} )^2</tt>
  
 
the parentheses don't come out the right size:
 
the parentheses don't come out the right size:
[[Image:badparen1.gif]]
+
 
 +
:<math>(\frac{a}{x})^2</math>
 +
 
 
If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:
 
If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:
  
\displaystyle \left(1 + \frac{a}{x} \right)^2
+
:<tt>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</tt>
  
 
gives
 
gives
  
<math>\left(1 + \frac{a}{x} \right)^2</math>
+
:<math>\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2</math>
  
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
+
And with system of equations:
  
==Multi-Size Symbols==
+
<tt>\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.</tt>
  
'''\boxed{Answer}'''  produces a box around your Answer.
+
Gives
  
'''\frac{a}{b}''' produces a [[fraction]] with [[numerator]] <math>a</math> and [[denominator]] <math>b</math>.  <math>\frac{a}{b}</math>
+
<math>\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.</math>
  
'''^\circ''' produces the degrees symbol.  <math>a^{\circ}</math>
+
See that there's a dot after <tt>\right</tt>. You must put that dot or the code won't work.
  
'''\text{Your Text Here}''' produces text within LaTeX.  <math>\mbox{Your Text Here}</math>.
 
  
'''\mbox{Your Text Here}''' Produces text within LaTeX <math>\mbox{Your Text Here}</math>
+
In addition to the <tt>\left</tt> and <tt>\right</tt> commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using
  
'''\sqrt{x}''' produces the square root of <math>x</math>.  <math>\sqrt{x}</math>
+
<tt>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil</tt>  
  
'''\sqrt[n]{x}''' produces the <math>n</math>th root of <math>x</math>.  <math>\sqrt[n]{x}</math>
+
and <tt>\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor </tt>
  
'''a\equiv b \pmod{c}''' produces <math>a</math> is equivalent to <math>b</math> mod <math>c</math>.  <math>a\equiv b \pmod{c}</math> See [[Mods |Modular Arithmetic]]
+
give both <math>\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}</math>
  
'''\binom{9}{3}''' produces 9 choose 3.
 
  
'''{n}\choose{r}''' produces n choose r. <math>{n}\choose{r}</math>
+
And, if you type this
  
'''x^{y}''' produces x to the power of y.  <math>x^y</math>
+
<tt>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</tt>
  
'''x_{y}''' produces x with y in subscript.  <math>x_y</math>
+
Gives
  
'''\rightarrow''' produces an arrow to the right.  <math>\rightarrow</math>
+
<math>\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}</math>
  
'''\leftarrow''' produces an arrow to the left. <math>\leftarrow</math>
+
Or
  
'''\uparrow''' produces an arrow pointing upwards. <math>\uparrow</math>
+
<tt>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</tt>
  
'''\downarrow''' produces an arrow pointing downwards. <math>\downarrow</math>
+
Gives
  
'''\updownarrow''' produces an arrow pointing up and down. <math>\updownarrow</math>
+
<math>\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}</math>
  
'''\ge''' produces a greater than or equal to sign. <math>\ge</math>
 
  
'''\le''' produces a less than or equal to sign. <math>\le</math>
+
\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\uparrow</math>||\uparrow||<math>\downarrow</math>||\downarrow||<math>\updownarrow</math>||\updownarrow
 +
|-
 +
| <math>\Uparrow</math>||\Uparrow||<math>\Downarrow</math>||\Downarrow||<math>\Updownarrow</math>||\Updownarrow
 +
|}
  
'''\not>''' produces a not greater than sign. <math>\not></math>
+
==Multi-Size Symbols==
 +
Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use <nowiki>\[...\]</nowiki> or <nowiki>$$...$$</nowiki>, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the [[LaTeX:Commands|commands]] section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.
  
'''\not<''' produces a not less than sign. <math>\not<</math>
+
In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.
 
 
'''\not\ge''' produces a not greater than or equal to sign. <math>\not\ge</math>
 
 
 
'''\not\le''' produces a not less than or equal to sign. <math>\not\le</math>
 
 
 
'''\neq''' produces a not equal to sign. <math>\neq</math>
 
 
 
'''\infty''' produces an infinity sign. <math>\infty</math>
 
 
 
'''\perp''' produces a perpendicular sign. <math>\perp</math>
 
 
 
'''\angle''' produces an angle sign. <math>\angle</math>
 
 
 
'''\triangle''' produces a triangle. <math>\triangle</math>
 
 
 
'''\ldots''' produces three dots at the bottom of a line (ellipsis). <math>\ldots</math>
 
 
 
'''\cdots''' produces three dots in the middle of a line (as in a series sum or product). <math>\cdots</math>
 
 
 
'''\times''' produces an <math>\times</math> as used in multiplication
 
 
 
'''\otimes''' produces a <math>\otimes</math>
 
 
 
Also note that you do not have to use braces, "{" and "}", when you only want one character in the operation.
 
 
 
==Examples==
 
* x^y is the same as x^{y}.  <math>x^y</math>
 
* x_y is the same as x_{y}.  <math>x_y</math>
 
* BUT x^10 is ''not'' the same as x^{10}.  <math>x^10</math> instead of <math>x^{10}</math>.
 
  
 +
{| class="latextable"
 +
!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command!!Symbol !! Command
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\sum  \textstyle\sum</math>||\sum||<math>\int  \textstyle\int</math>||\int||<math>\oint  \textstyle\oint</math>||\oint
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\prod  \textstyle\prod</math>||\prod||<math>\coprod  \textstyle\coprod</math>||\coprod||<math>\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap</math>||\bigcap
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup</math>||\bigcup||<math>\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup</math>||\bigsqcup||<math>\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee</math>||\bigvee
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge</math>||\bigwedge||<math>\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot</math>||\bigodot||<math>\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes</math>||\bigotimes
 +
|-
 +
|<math>\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus</math>||\bigoplus||<math>\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus</math>||\biguplus
 +
|}
  
 
==See Also==
 
==See Also==
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
 
*[[LaTeX:Commands | Next: Commands]]
*[[LaTeX:Layout | Previous: Layout]]
 

Latest revision as of 18:05, 24 June 2019

LaTeX
About - Getting Started - Diagrams - Symbols - Downloads - Basics - Math - Examples - Pictures - Layout - Commands - Packages - Help

This article will provide a short list of commonly used LaTeX symbols.

Finding Other Symbols

Here are some external resources for finding less commonly used symbols:


Operators

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\pm$ \pm $\mp$ \mp $\times$ \times
$\div$ \div $\cdot$ \cdot $\ast$ \ast
$\star$ \star $\dagger$ \dagger $\ddagger$ \ddagger
$\amalg$ \amalg $\cap$ \cap $\cup$ \cup
$\uplus$ \uplus $\sqcap$ \sqcap $\sqcup$ \sqcup
$\vee$ \vee $\wedge$ \wedge $\oplus$ \oplus
$\ominus$ \ominus $\otimes$ \otimes $\circ$ \circ
$\bullet$ \bullet $\diamond$ \diamond $\lhd$ \lhd
$\rhd$ \rhd $\unlhd$ \unlhd Unrhd.gif \unrhd
$\oslash$ \oslash $\odot$ \odot $\bigcirc$ \bigcirc
$\triangleleft$ \triangleleft $\Diamond$ \Diamond $\bigtriangleup$ \bigtriangleup
$\bigtriangledown$ \bigtriangledown $\Box$ \Box $\triangleright$ \triangleright
$\setminus$ \setminus $\wr$ \wr $\sqrt{x}$ \sqrt{x}
$x^{\circ}$ x^{\circ} $\triangledown$ \triangledown $\sqrt[n]{x}$ \sqrt[n]{x}
$a^x$ a^x $a^{xyz}$ a^{xyz}

Relations

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\le$ \le $\ge$ \ge $\neq$ \neq
$\sim$ \sim $\ll$ \ll $\gg$ \gg
$\doteq$ \doteq $\simeq$ \simeq $\subset$ \subset
$\supset$ \supset $\approx$ \approx $\asymp$ \asymp
$\subseteq$ \subseteq $\supseteq$ \supseteq $\cong$ \cong
$\smile$ \smile $\sqsubset$ \sqsubset $\sqsupset$ \sqsupset
$\equiv$ \equiv $\frown$ \frown $\sqsubseteq$ \sqsubseteq
$\sqsupseteq$ \sqsupseteq $\propto$ \propto $\bowtie$ \bowtie
$\in$ \in $\ni$ \ni $\prec$ \prec
$\succ$ \succ $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\preceq$ \preceq $\succeq$ \succeq $\models$ \models
$\perp$ \perp $\parallel$ \parallel
$\mid$ \mid $\bumpeq$ \bumpeq

Negations of many of these relations can be formed by just putting \not before the symbol, or by slipping an n between the \ and the word. Here are a couple examples, plus many other negations; it works for many of the many others as well.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\nmid$ \nmid $\nleq$ \nleq $\ngeq$ \ngeq
$\nsim$ \nsim $\ncong$ \ncong $\nparallel$ \nparallel
$\not<$ \not< $\not>$ \not> $\not=$ \not= or \neq
$\not\le$ \not\le $\not\ge$ \not\ge $\not\sim$ \not\sim
$\not \approx$ \not\approx $\not\cong$ \not\cong $\not\equiv$ \not\equiv
$\not\parallel$ \not\parallel $\nless$ \nless $\ngtr$ \ngtr
$\lneq$ \lneq $\gneq$ \gneq $\lnsim$ \lnsim
$\lneqq$ \lneqq $\gneqq$ \gneqq

To use other relations not listed here, such as =, >, and <, in LaTeX, you must use the symbols on your keyboard, they are not available in $\LaTeX$.

Greek Letters

Lowercase Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\alpha$ \alpha $\beta$ \beta $\gamma$ \gamma $\delta$ \delta
$\epsilon$ \epsilon $\varepsilon$ \varepsilon $\zeta$ \zeta $\eta$ \eta
$\theta$ \theta $\vartheta$ \vartheta $\iota$ \iota $\kappa$ \kappa
$\lambda$ \lambda $\mu$ \mu $\nu$ \nu $\xi$ \xi
$\pi$ \pi $\varpi$ \varpi $\rho$ \rho $\varrho$ \varrho
$\sigma$ \sigma $\varsigma$ \varsigma $\tau$ \tau $\upsilon$ \upsilon
$\phi$ \phi $\varphi$ \varphi $\chi$ \chi $\psi$ \psi
$\omega$ \omega


Capital Letters
Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\Gamma$ \Gamma $\Delta$ \Delta $\Theta$ \Theta $\Lambda$ \Lambda
$\Xi$ \Xi $\Pi$ \Pi $\Sigma$ \Sigma $\Upsilon$ \Upsilon
$\Phi$ \Phi $\Psi$ \Psi $\Omega$ \Omega


Arrows

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\gets$ \gets $\to$ \to
$\leftarrow$ \leftarrow $\Leftarrow$ \Leftarrow
$\rightarrow$ \rightarrow $\Rightarrow$ \Rightarrow
$\leftrightarrow$ \leftrightarrow $\Leftrightarrow$ \Leftrightarrow
$\mapsto$ \mapsto $\hookleftarrow$ \hookleftarrow
$\leftharpoonup$ \leftharpoonup $\leftharpoondown$ \leftharpoondown
$\rightleftharpoons$ \rightleftharpoons $\longleftarrow$ \longleftarrow
$\Longleftarrow$ \Longleftarrow $\longrightarrow$ \longrightarrow
$\Longrightarrow$ \Longrightarrow $\longleftrightarrow$ \longleftrightarrow
$\Longleftrightarrow$ \Longleftrightarrow $\longmapsto$ \longmapsto
$\hookrightarrow$ \hookrightarrow $\rightharpoonup$ \rightharpoonup
$\rightharpoondown$ \rightharpoondown $\leadsto$ \leadsto
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\Uparrow$ \Uparrow
$\downarrow$ \downarrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow
$\updownarrow$ \updownarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow
$\nearrow$ \nearrow $\searrow$ \searrow
$\swarrow$ \swarrow $\nwarrow$ \nwarrow

(For those of you who hate typing long strings of letters, \iff and \implies can be used in place of \Longleftrightarrow and \Longrightarrow respectively.)

Dots

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\cdot$ \cdot $\vdots$ \vdots
$\dots$ \dots $\ddots$ \ddots
$\cdots$ \cdots $\iddots$ \iddots

Accents

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\hat{x}$ \hat{x} $\check{x}$ \check{x} $\dot{x}$ \dot{x}
$\breve{x}$ \breve{x} $\acute{x}$ \acute{x} $\ddot{x}$ \ddot{x}
$\grave{x}$ \grave{x} $\tilde{x}$ \tilde{x} $\mathring{x}$ \mathring{x}
$\bar{x}$ \bar{x} $\vec{x}$ \vec{x}

When applying accents to i and j, you can use \imath and \jmath to keep the dots from interfering with the accents:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\vec{\jmath}$ \vec{\jmath} $\tilde{\imath}$ \tilde{\imath}

\tilde and \hat have wide versions that allow you to accent an expression:

Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\widehat{7+x}$ \widehat{7+x} $\widetilde{abc}$ \widetilde{abc}

Others

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\infty$ \infty $\triangle$ \triangle $\angle$ \angle
$\aleph$ \aleph $\hbar$ \hbar $\imath$ \imath
$\jmath$ \jmath $\ell$ \ell $\wp$ \wp
$\Re$ \Re $\Im$ \Im $\mho$ \mho
$\prime$ \prime $\emptyset$ \emptyset $\nabla$ \nabla
$\surd$ \surd $\partial$ \partial $\top$ \top
$\bot$ \bot $\vdash$ \vdash $\dashv$ \dashv
$\forall$ \forall $\exists$ \exists $\neg$ \neg
$\flat$ \flat $\natural$ \natural $\sharp$ \sharp
$\backslash$ \backslash $\Box$ \Box $\Diamond$ \Diamond
$\clubsuit$ \clubsuit $\diamondsuit$ \diamondsuit $\heartsuit$ \heartsuit
Spadesuit.gif \spadesuit $\Join$ \Join $\blacksquare$ \blacksquare
$\S$ \S $\P$ \P $\copyright$ \copyright
$\pounds$ \pounds $\overarc{ABC}$ \overarc{ABC} $\underarc{XYZ}$ \underarc{XYZ}
$\bigstar$ \bigstar $\in$ \in $\cup$ \cup
$\square$ \square
$\smiley$ \smiley
$\mathbb{R}$ \mathbb{R} (represents all real numbers)
$\checkmark$ \checkmark
$\cancer$ \cancer

Command Symbols

Some symbols are used in commands so they need to be treated in a special way.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\textdollar$ \textdollar or $ $\&$ \& $\%$ \% $\#$ \#
$\_$ \_ $\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\backslash$ \backslash

(Warning: Using $ for $\textdollar$ will result in $$. This is a bug as far as we know. Depending on the version of $\LaTeX$ this is not always a problem.)

European Language Symbols

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
${\oe}$ {\oe} ${\ae}$ {\ae} ${\o}$ {\o}
${\OE}$ {\OE} ${\AE}$ {\AE} ${\AA}$ {\AA} ${\O}$ {\O}
${\l}$ {\l} ${\ss}$ {\ss} $\text{!`}$ !`
${\L}$ {\L} ${\SS}$ {\SS}

Bracketing Symbols

In mathematics, sometimes we need to enclose expressions in brackets or braces or parentheses. Some of these work just as you'd imagine in LaTeX; type ( and ) for parentheses, [ and ] for brackets, and | and | for absolute value. However, other symbols have special commands:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\{$ \{ $\}$ \} $\|$ \|
$\backslash$ \backslash $\lfloor$ \lfloor $\rfloor$ \rfloor
$\lceil$ \lceil $\rceil$ \rceil $\langle$ \langle
$\rangle$ \rangle

You might notice that if you use any of these to typeset an expression that is vertically large, like

(\frac{a}{x} )^2

the parentheses don't come out the right size:

$(\frac{a}{x})^2$

If we put \left and \right before the relevant parentheses, we get a prettier expression:

\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2

gives

$\left(\frac{a}{x} \right)^2$

And with system of equations:

\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.

Gives

$\left\{\begin{array}{l}x+y=3\\2x+y=5\end{array}\right.$

See that there's a dot after \right. You must put that dot or the code won't work.


In addition to the \left and \right commands, when doing floor or ceiling functions with fractions, using

\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil

and \left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor

give both $\left\lceil\frac{x}{y}\right\rceil\text{ and }\left\lfloor\frac{x}{y}\right\rfloor\text{, respectively.}$


And, if you type this

\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}

Gives

$\underbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}_{x}$

Or

\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}

Gives

$\overbrace{a_0+a_1+a_2+\cdots+a_n}^{x}$


\left and \right can also be used to resize the following symbols:

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\uparrow$ \uparrow $\downarrow$ \downarrow $\updownarrow$ \updownarrow
$\Uparrow$ \Uparrow $\Downarrow$ \Downarrow $\Updownarrow$ \Updownarrow

Multi-Size Symbols

Some symbols render differently in inline math mode and in display mode. Display mode occurs when you use \[...\] or $$...$$, or environments like \begin{equation}...\end{equation}, \begin{align}...\end{align}. Read more in the commands section of the guide about how symbols which take arguments above and below the symbols, such as a summation symbol, behave in the two modes.

In each of the following, the two images show the symbol in display mode, then in inline mode.

Symbol Command Symbol Command Symbol Command
$\sum  \textstyle\sum$ \sum $\int  \textstyle\int$ \int $\oint  \textstyle\oint$ \oint
$\prod  \textstyle\prod$ \prod $\coprod  \textstyle\coprod$ \coprod $\bigcap  \textstyle\bigcap$ \bigcap
$\bigcup  \textstyle\bigcup$ \bigcup $\bigsqcup  \textstyle\bigsqcup$ \bigsqcup $\bigvee  \textstyle\bigvee$ \bigvee
$\bigwedge  \textstyle\bigwedge$ \bigwedge $\bigodot  \textstyle\bigodot$ \bigodot $\bigotimes  \textstyle\bigotimes$ \bigotimes
$\bigoplus  \textstyle\bigoplus$ \bigoplus $\biguplus  \textstyle\biguplus$ \biguplus

See Also

Invalid username
Login to AoPS