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2005 Canadian MO Problems

Problem 1

Consider an equilateral triangle of side length $n$, which is divided into unit triangles, as shown. Let $f(n)$ be the number of paths from the triangle in the top row to the middle triangle in the bottom row, such that adjacent triangles in our path share a common edge and the path never travels up (from a lower row to a higher row) or revisits a triangle. An example of one such path is illustrated below for $n=5$. Determine the value of $f(2005)$.

CanMO 2005 1.png


Problem 2

Let $(a,b,c)$ be a Pythagorean triple, i.e., a triplet of positive integers with ${a}^2+{b}^2={c}^2$.

  • Prove that $\left(\frac{c}{a}+\frac{c}{b}\right)^2>8$.
  • Prove that there are no integer $n$ and Pythagorean triple $(a,b,c)$ satisfying $\left(\frac{c}{a}+\frac{c}{b}\right)^2=n$.


Problem 3

Let $S$ be a set of $n\ge 3$ points in the interior of a circle.

  • Show that there are three distinct points $a,b,c\in S$ and three distinct points $A,B,C$ on the circle such that $a$ is (strictly) closer to $A$ than any other point in $S$, $b$ is closer to $B$ than any other point in $S$ and $c$ is closer to $C$ than any other point in $S$.
  • Show that for no value of $n$ can four such points in $S$ (and corresponding points on the circle) be guaranteed.


Problem 4

Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumradius $R$, perimeter $P$ and area $K$. Determine the maximum value of $KP/R^3$.


Problem 5

Let's say that an ordered triple of positive integers $(a,b,c)$ is $n$-powerful if $a \le b \le c$, $\gcd(a,b,c) = 1$, and $a^n + b^n + c^n$ is divisible by $a+b+c$. For example, $(1,2,2)$ is 5-powerful.

  • Determine all ordered triples (if any) which are $n$-powerful for all $n \ge 1$.
  • Determine all ordered triples (if any) which are 2004-powerful and 2005-powerful, but not 2007-powerful.



2005 Canadian MO

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