# 2008 IMO Problems

Problems of the 49th IMO 2008 Spain.

## Day 1

### Problem 1

Let $H$ be the orthocenter of an acute-angled triangle $ABC$. The circle $\Gamma_{A}$ centered at the midpoint of $BC$ and passing through $H$ intersects line $BC$ at points $A_{1}$ and $A_{2}$. Similarly, define the points $B_{1}$, $B_{2}$, $C_{1}$ and $C_{2}$.

Prove that six points $A_{1}$ , $A_{2}$, $B_{1}$, $B_{2}$, $C_{1}$ and $C_{2}$ are concyclic.

### Problem 2

Let $x, y, z\neq 1$ be three real numbers, such that $xyz = 1$

(i) Prove that; $\frac {x^{2}}{\left(x - 1\right)^{2}} + \frac {y^{2}}{\left(y - 1\right)^{2}} + \frac {z^{2}}{\left(z - 1\right)^{2}} \geq 1$.

(ii) Prove that $\frac {x^{2}}{\left(x - 1\right)^{2}} + \frac {y^{2}}{\left(y - 1\right)^{2}} + \frac {z^{2}}{\left(z - 1\right)^{2}} = 1$ for infinitely many triples of rational numbers $x$, $y$ and $z$.

### Problem 3

Prove that there are infinitely many positive integers $n$ such that $n^{2} + 1$ has a prime divisor greater than $2n + \sqrt {2n}$.

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Find all functions $f: (0, \infty) \mapsto (0, \infty)$ (so $f$ is a function from the positive real numbers) such that $\frac {\left( f(w) \right)^2 + \left( f(x) \right)^2}{f(y^2) + f(z^2) } = \frac {w^2 + x^2}{y^2 + z^2}$

for all positive real numbes $w,x,y,z,$ satisfying $wx = yz.$

### Problem 5

Let $n$ and $k$ be positive integers with $k \geq n$ and $k - n$ an even number. Let $2n$ lamps labelled $1, 2, \dots, 2n$ be given, each of which can be either on or off. Initially all the lamps are off. We consider sequences of steps: at each step one of the lamps is switched (from on to off or from off to on).

Let $N$ be the number of such sequences consisting of $k$ steps and resulting in the state where lamps $1$ through $n$ are all on, and lamps $n + 1$ through $2n$ are all off.

Let $M$ be number of such sequences consisting of $k$ steps, resulting in the state where lamps $1$ through $n$ are all on, and lamps $n + 1$ through $2n$ are all off, but where none of the lamps $n + 1$ through $2n$ is ever switched on.

Determine $\frac {N}{M}$.

### Problem 6

Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with $BA$ different from $BC$. Denote the incircles of triangles $ABC$ and $ADC$ by $k_{1}$ and $k_{2}$ respectively. Suppose that there exists a circle $k$ tangent to ray $BA$ beyond $A$ and to the ray $BC$ beyond $C$, which is also tangent to the lines $AD$ and $CD$.

Prove that the common external tangents to $k_{1}$ and $k_{2}$ intersect on $k$.

## Resources

 2008 IMO (Problems) • Resources Preceded by2007 IMO Problems 1 • 2 • 3 • 4 • 5 • 6 Followed by2009 IMO Problems All IMO Problems and Solutions