2022 USAJMO Problems

Day 1

$\textbf{Note:}$ For any geometry problem whose statement begins with an asterisk $(*)$, the first page of the solution must be a large, in-scale, clearly labeled diagram. Failure to meet this requirement will result in an automatic 1-point deduction.

Problem 1

For which positive integers $m$ does there exist an infinite arithmetic sequence of integers $a_1,a_2,\cdots$ and an infinite geometric sequence of integers $g_1,g_2,\cdots$ satisfying the following properties?

$\bullet$ $a_n-g_n$ is divisible by $m$ for all integers $n>1$;

$\bullet$ $a_2-a_1$ is not divisible by $m$.

Solution

Problem 2

Let $a$ and $b$ be positive integers. The cells of an $(a + b + 1)\times (a + b + 1)$ grid are colored amber and bronze such that there are at least $a^2+ab-b$ amber cells and at least $b^2+ab-a$ bronze cells. Prove that it is possible to choose $a$ amber cells and $b$ bronze cells such that no two of the $a+b$ chosen cells lie in the same row or column.

Solution

Problem 3

Let $b\geq2$ and $w\geq2$ be fixed integers, and $n=b+w$. Given are $2b$ identical black rods and $2w$ identical white rods, each of side length $1$.

We assemble a regular $2n$-gon using these rods so that parallel sides are the same color. Then, a convex $2b$-gon $B$ is formed by translating the black rods, and a convex $2w$-gon $W$ is formed by translating the white rods. An example of one way of doing the assembly when $b=3$ and $w=2$ is shown below, as well as the resulting polygons $B$ and $W$.

[asy] size(10cm); real w = 2*Sin(18); real h = 0.10 * w; real d = 0.33 * h; picture wht; picture blk;  draw(wht, (0,0)--(w,0)--(w+d,h)--(-d,h)--cycle); fill(blk, (0,0)--(w,0)--(w+d,h)--(-d,h)--cycle, black);  // draw(unitcircle, blue+dotted);  // Original polygon add(shift(dir(108))*blk); add(shift(dir(72))*rotate(324)*blk); add(shift(dir(36))*rotate(288)*wht); add(shift(dir(0))*rotate(252)*blk); add(shift(dir(324))*rotate(216)*wht);  add(shift(dir(288))*rotate(180)*blk); add(shift(dir(252))*rotate(144)*blk); add(shift(dir(216))*rotate(108)*wht); add(shift(dir(180))*rotate(72)*blk); add(shift(dir(144))*rotate(36)*wht);  // White shifted real Wk = 1.2; pair W1 = (1.8,0.1); pair W2 = W1 + w*dir(36); pair W3 = W2 + w*dir(108); pair W4 = W3 + w*dir(216); path Wgon = W1--W2--W3--W4--cycle; draw(Wgon); pair WO = (W1+W3)/2; transform Wt = shift(WO)*scale(Wk)*shift(-WO); draw(Wt * Wgon); label("$W$", WO); /* draw(W1--Wt*W1); draw(W2--Wt*W2); draw(W3--Wt*W3); draw(W4--Wt*W4); */  // Black shifted real Bk = 1.10; pair B1 = (1.5,-0.1); pair B2 = B1 + w*dir(0); pair B3 = B2 + w*dir(324); pair B4 = B3 + w*dir(252); pair B5 = B4 + w*dir(180); pair B6 = B5 + w*dir(144); path Bgon = B1--B2--B3--B4--B5--B6--cycle; pair BO = (B1+B4)/2; transform Bt = shift(BO)*scale(Bk)*shift(-BO); fill(Bt * Bgon, black); fill(Bgon, white); label("$B$", BO); [/asy]

Prove that the difference of the areas of $B$ and $W$ depends only on the numbers $b$ and $w$, and not on how the $2n$-gon was assembled.

Solution

Day 2

Problem 4

$(*)$ Let $ABCD$ be a rhombus, and let $K$ and $L$ be points such that $K$ lies inside the rhombus, $L$ lies outside the rhombus, and $KA=KB=LC=LD$. Prove that there exist points $X$ and $Y$ on lines $AC$ and $BD$ such that $KXLY$ is also a rhombus.

Solution

Problem 5

Find all pairs of primes $(p,q)$ for which $p-q$ and $pq-q$ are both perfect squares.

Solution

Problem 6

Let $a_0,b_0,c_0$ be complex numbers, and define

\[a_{n+1}=a_n^2+2b_nc_n\] \[b_{n+1}=b_n^2+2c_na_n\] \[c_{n+1}=c_n^2+2a_nb_n\] for all nonnegative integers $n$.

Suppose that $\max{(|a_n|,|b_n|,|c_n|)}\leq2022$ for all $n$. Prove that \[|a_0|^2+|b_0|^2+|c_0|^2\leq 1.\] Solution

2021 USAJMO (ProblemsResources)
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2021 USAJMO
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2023 USAJMO
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