# Proportion

Two numbers are said to be in proportion to each other if some numeric relationship exists between them. There are several types of proportions, each defined by a separate class of function.

## Direct Proportion

Direct proportion is a proportion in which one number is a multiple of the other. Direct proportion between two numbers $x$ and $y$ can be expressed as:

$y=kx$

where $k$ is some real number.

The graph of a direct proportion is always linear.

Often, this will be written as $y \propto x$.

## Inverse Proportion

Inverse proportion is a proportion in which as one number's absolute value increases, the other's decreases in a directly proportional amount. It can be expressed as:

$xy=k$

## Exponential Proportion

A proportion in which one number is equal to a constant raised to the power of the other, or the logarithm of the other, is called an exponential proportion. It can be expressed as either:

$y = k^x\,$ or
$y = \log_k (x).\,$

for some real number $k$, where $k$ is not zero or one.

## Problems

### Introductory

• Suppose $\frac{1}{20}$ is either $x$ or $y$ in the following system:

$$\begin{cases} xy=\frac{1}{k}\\ x=ky \end{cases}$$ Find the possible values of $k$. (Source)

### Intermediate

• $x$ is directly proportional to the sum of the squares of $y$ and $z$ and inversely proportional to $y$ and the square of $z$. If $x = 8$ when $y = \frac{1}{2}$ and $z = \frac{\sqrt {3}}{2}$, find $y$ when $x = 1$ and $z = 6$, what is $y$? (Source) (Thanks to Bicameral of the AoPS forum for this one)