# 2000 AMC 12 Problems/Problem 24

## Problem

If circular arcs $AC$ and $BC$ have centers at $B$ and $A$, respectively, then there exists a circle tangent to both $\stackrel{\frown}{AC}$ and $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$, and to $\overline{AB}$. If the length of $\stackrel{\frown}{BC}$ is $12$, then the circumference of the circle is

$\text {(A)}\ 24 \qquad \text {(B)}\ 25 \qquad \text {(C)}\ 26 \qquad \text {(D)}\ 27 \qquad \text {(E)}\ 28$

## Solution

Since $AB,BC,AC$ are all radii, it follows that $\triangle ABC$ is an equilateral triangle.

Draw the circle with center $A$ and radius $\overline{AB}$. Then let $D$ be the point of tangency of the two circles, and $E$ be the intersection of the smaller circle and $\overline{AD}$. Let $F$ be the intersection of the smaller circle and $\overline{AB}$. Also define the radii $r_1 = AB, r_2 = \frac{DE}{2}$ (note that $DE$ is a diameter of the smaller circle, as $D$ is the point of tangency of both circles, the radii of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent, hence the two centers of the circle are collinear with each other and $D$).

By the Power of a Point Theorem, $$AF^2 = AE \cdot AD \Longrightarrow \left(\frac {r_1}2\right)^2 = (AD - 2r_2) \cdot AD.$$

Since $AD = r_1$, then $\frac{r_1^2}{4} = r_1 (r_1 - 2r_2) \Longrightarrow r_2 = \frac{3r_1}{8}$. Since $ABC$ is equilateral, $\angle BAC = 60^{\circ}$, and so $\stackrel{\frown}{BC} = 12 = \frac{60}{360} 2\pi r_1 \Longrightarrow r_1 = \frac{36}{\pi}$. Thus $r_2 = \frac{27}{2\pi}$ and the circumference of the circle is $27\ \mathrm{(D)}$.