Difference between revisions of "2008 AIME I Problems/Problem 4"

m (Solution 2)
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===Solution 2===
 
===Solution 2===
 
We complete the square like in the first solution: <math>y^2 = (x+42)^2 + 244</math>. Since consecutive squares differ by the consecutive odd numbers, we note that <math>y</math> and <math>x+42</math> must differ by an even number. We can use casework with the even numbers, starting with <math>y-(x+42)=2</math>.
 
We complete the square like in the first solution: <math>y^2 = (x+42)^2 + 244</math>. Since consecutive squares differ by the consecutive odd numbers, we note that <math>y</math> and <math>x+42</math> must differ by an even number. We can use casework with the even numbers, starting with <math>y-(x+42)=2</math>.
<center><math>\begin{align*}2(x+42)+1+2(x+42)+3&=244\\
+
<cmath>\begin{align*}2(x+42)+1+2(x+42)+3&=244\\
\Rightleftarrow x&=18\end{align*}</math></center>
+
\Rightleftarrow x&=18\end{align*}</cmath>
  
 
Thus, <math>y=62</math> and the answer is <math>\boxed{080}</math>.
 
Thus, <math>y=62</math> and the answer is <math>\boxed{080}</math>.

Revision as of 17:26, 13 March 2015

Problem

There exist unique positive integers $x$ and $y$ that satisfy the equation $x^2 + 84x + 2008 = y^2$. Find $x + y$.

Solution

Solution 1

Completing the square, $y^2 = x^2 + 84x + 2008 = (x+42)^2 + 244$. Thus $244 = y^2 - (x+42)^2 = (y - x - 42)(y + x + 42)$ by difference of squares.

Since $244$ is even, one of the factors is even. A parity check shows that if one of them is even, then both must be even. Since $244 = 2^2 \cdot 61$, the factors must be $2$ and $122$. Since $x,y > 0$, we have $y - x - 42 = 2$ and $y + x + 42 = 122$; the latter equation implies that $x + y = \boxed{080}$.

Indeed, by solving, we find $(x,y) = (18,62)$ is the unique solution.

Solution 2

We complete the square like in the first solution: $y^2 = (x+42)^2 + 244$. Since consecutive squares differ by the consecutive odd numbers, we note that $y$ and $x+42$ must differ by an even number. We can use casework with the even numbers, starting with $y-(x+42)=2$.

\begin{align*}2(x+42)+1+2(x+42)+3&=244\\
\Rightleftarrow x&=18\end{align*} (Error compiling LaTeX. ! Undefined control sequence.)

Thus, $y=62$ and the answer is $\boxed{080}$.

Solution 3

We see that $y^2 \equiv x^2 + 4 \pmod{6}$. By quadratic residues, we find that either $x \equiv 0, 3 \pmod{6}$. Also, $y^2 \equiv (x+42)^2 + 244 \equiv (x+2)^2 \pmod{4}$, so $x \equiv 0, 2 \mod{4}$. Combining, we see that $x \equiv 0 \mod{6}$.

Testing $x = 6$ and other multiples of $6$, we quickly find that $x = 18, y = 62$ is the solution. $18+62=\boxed{080}$

Solution 4

We solve for x: $x^2 + 84x + 2008-y^2 = 0$

$x=\dfrac{-84+\sqrt{84^2-4\cdot 2008+4y^2}}{2}=-42+\sqrt{y^2-244}$

So $y^2-244$ is a perfect square. Since 244 is even, the difference $\sqrt{y^2-244} -y^2$ is even, so we try $y^2-244=(y-2)^2$: $-244=-4y+4$, $y=62$.

Plugging into our equation, we find that $x=18$, and $(x,y)=(18,62)$ indeed satisfies the original equation. $x+y=\boxed{080}$

Solution 5

Let $y=x+d$ for some $d>0$, substitute into the original equation to get $84x + 2008 = 2xd + d^2$.

All terms except for the last one are even, hence $d^2$ must be even, hence let $d=2e$. We obtain $21x + 502 = xe + e^2$. Rearrange to $502-e^2 = x(e-21)$.

Obviously for $0<e<21$ the right hand side is negative and the left hand side is positive. Hence $e\geq 21$. Let $e=21+f$, then $f\geq 0$.

We have $502 - (21+f)^2 = xf$. Left hand side simplifies to $61 - 42f + f^2$. As $x$ must be an integer, $f$ must divide the left hand side. But $61$ is a prime, which only leaves two options: $f=1$ and $f=61$.

Option $f=61$ gives us a negative $x$. Option $f=1$ gives us $x=61/f - 42 + f = 18$, and $y = x + d= x + 2e = x + 2(21+f) = 18 + 44 = 62$, hence $x+y=\boxed{080}$.

See also

2008 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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