2016 AIME I Problems/Problem 11

Revision as of 22:29, 4 March 2016 by Mathgeek2006 (talk | contribs) (Solution 4)

Problem

Let $P(x)$ be a nonzero polynomial such that $(x-1)P(x+1)=(x+2)P(x)$ for every real $x$, and $\left(P(2)\right)^2 = P(3)$. Then $P(\tfrac72)=\tfrac{m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n$.

Solution 1

We substitute $x=2$ into $(x-1)P(x+1)=(x+2)P(x)$ to get $P(3)=4P(2)$. Since we also have that $\left(P(2)\right)^2 = P(3)$, we have that $P(2)=4$ and $P(3)=16$. We can also substitute $x=1$, $x=0$, and $x=3$ into $(x-1)P(x+1)=(x+2)P(x)$ to get that $0=P(1)$, $-1P(1)=2P(0)$, and $2P(4)=5P(3)$. This leads us to the conclusion that $P(0)=P(1)=0$ and $P(4)=40$.

We next use finite differences to find that $P$ is a cubic polynomial. Thus, $P$ must be of the form of $ax^3+bx^2+cx+d$. It follows that $d=0$; we now have a system of $3$ equations to solve. We plug in $x=1$, $x=2$, and $x=3$ to get

\[a+b+c=0\] \[8a+4b+2c=4\] \[27a+9b+3c=16\]

We solve this system to get that $a=\frac{3}{2}$, $b=0$, and $c=-\frac{3}{2}$. Thus, $P(x)=\frac{3}{2}x^3-\frac{3}{2}x$. Plugging in $x=\frac{7}{2}$, we see that $P\left(\frac{7}{2}\right)=\frac{105}{4}$. Thus, $m=105$, $n=4$, and our answer is $m+n=\boxed{109}$.

Solution 2

So from the equation we see that $x-1$ divides $P(x)$ and $(x+2)$ divides $P(x+1)$ so we can conclude that $x-1$ and $x+1$ divide $P(x)$. This means that $1$ and $-1$ are roots of $P(x)$. Plug in $x = 0$ and we see that $P(0) = 0$ so $0$ is also a root.

Suppose we had another root that is not those $3$. Notice that the equation above indicates that if $r$ is a root then $r+1$ and $r-1$ is also a root. Then we'd get an infinite amount of roots! So that is bad. So we cannot have any other roots besides those three.

That means $P(x) = cx(x-1)(x+1)$. We can use $P(2)^2 = P(3)$ to get $c = \frac{2}{3}$. Plugging in $\frac{7}{2}$ is now trivial and we see that it is $\frac{105}{4}$ so our answer is $\boxed{109}$

Solution 3

Although this may not be the most mathematically rigorous answer, we see that $\frac{P(x+1)}{P(x)}=\frac{x+2}{x-1}$. Using a bit of logic, we can make a guess that $P(x+1)$ has a factor of $x+2$, telling us $P(x)$ has a factor of $x+1$. Similarly, we guess that $P(x)$ has a factor of $x-1$, which means $P(x+1)$ has a factor of $x$. Now, since $P(x)$ and $P(x+1)$ have so many factors that are off by one, we may surmise that when you plug $x+1$ into $P(x)$, the factors "shift over," i.e. $P(x)=(A)(A+1)(A+2)...(A+n)$, which goes to $P(x+1)=(A+1)(A+2)(A+3)...(A+n+1)$. This is useful because these, when divided, result in $\frac{P(x+1)}{P(x)}=\frac{A+n+1}{A}$. If $\frac{A+n+1}{A}=\frac{x+2}{x-1}$, then we get $A=x-1$ and $A+n+1=x+2$, $n=2$. This gives us $P(x)=(x-1)x(x+1)$ and $P(x+1)=x(x+1)(x+2)$, and at this point we realize that there has to be some constant $a$ multiplied in front of the factors, which won't affect our fraction $\frac{P(x+1)}{P(x)}=\frac{x+2}{x-1}$ but will give us the correct values of $P(2)$ and $P(3)$. Thus $P(x)=a(x-1)x(x+1)$, and we utilize $P(2)^2=P(3)$ to find $a=\frac{2}{3}$. Evaluating $P \left ( \frac{7}{2} \right )$ is then easy, and we see it equals $\frac{105}{4}$, so the answer is $\boxed{109}$

Solution 4

As above, we find that $P(2)=4$. Now for integers $n\ge 2$, we know that \[P(n+1)=\frac{n+2}{n-1}P(n).\] Applying this repeatedly, we find that \[P(n+1)=\frac{(n+2)!/3!}{(n-1)!}P(2).\] Therefore, as $P(2)=4$, we find $P(n+1)=\frac{2}{3}(n+2)(n+1)n$ for all positive integers $n\ge2$. This cubic polynomial matches the values $P(n+1)$ for infinitely many numbers, hence the two polynomials are identically equal. In particular, $P\left(\frac72\right)=\frac23\cdot\frac92\cdot\frac72\cdot\frac52=\frac{105}{4}$, and the answer is $\boxed{109}$.

See also

2016 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 10
Followed by
Problem 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. AMC logo.png

Invalid username
Login to AoPS