Difference between revisions of "2019 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 24"

(Solution 2 (limits))
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==Solution==
 
==Solution==
===Solution 1===
 
 
Multiplying both sides by <math>(s-p)(s-q)(s-r)</math> yields
 
Multiplying both sides by <math>(s-p)(s-q)(s-r)</math> yields
 
<cmath>1 = A(s-q)(s-r) + B(s-p)(s-r) + C(s-p)(s-q)</cmath>
 
<cmath>1 = A(s-q)(s-r) + B(s-p)(s-r) + C(s-p)(s-q)</cmath>

Revision as of 19:58, 22 November 2020

Problem

Let $p$, $q$, and $r$ be the distinct roots of the polynomial $x^3 - 22x^2 + 80x - 67$. It is given that there exist real numbers $A$, $B$, and $C$ such that \[\dfrac{1}{s^3 - 22s^2 + 80s - 67} = \dfrac{A}{s-p} + \dfrac{B}{s-q} + \frac{C}{s-r}\]for all $s\not\in\{p,q,r\}$. What is $\tfrac1A+\tfrac1B+\tfrac1C$?

$\textbf{(A) }243\qquad\textbf{(B) }244\qquad\textbf{(C) }245\qquad\textbf{(D) }246\qquad\textbf{(E) } 247$

Solution

Multiplying both sides by $(s-p)(s-q)(s-r)$ yields \[1 = A(s-q)(s-r) + B(s-p)(s-r) + C(s-p)(s-q)\] As this is a polynomial identity, and it is true for infinitely many $s$, it must be true for all $s$ (since a polynomial with infinitely many roots must in fact be the constant polynomial $0$). This means we can plug in $s = p$ to find that $\frac1A = (p-q)(p-r)$. Similarly, we can find $\frac1B = (q-p)(q-r)$ and $\frac1C = (r-p)(r-q)$. Summing them up, we get that \[\frac1A + \frac1B + \frac1C = p^2 + q^2 + r^2 - pq - qr - pr\] By Vieta's Formulas, we know that $p^2 + q^2 + r^2 = (p+q+r)^2 - 2(pq + qr + pr) = 324$ and $pq + qr + pr = 80$. Thus the answer is $324 -80 = \boxed{\textbf{(B) } 244}$.

Note: this process of substituting in the 'forbidden' values in the original identity is a standard technique for partial fraction decomposition, as taught in calculus classes.

See Also

Video Solution: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GI5d2ZN8gXY&t=53s


2019 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 23
Followed by
Problem 25
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions

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