# Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion

The Principle of Inclusion-Exclusion (abbreviated PIE) provides an organized method/formula to find the number of elements in the union of a given group of sets, the size of each set, and the size of all possible intersections among the sets.

## Remarks

Sometimes it is also useful to know that, if you take into account only the first $m\le n$ sums on the right, then you will get an overestimate if $m$ is odd and an underestimate if $m$ is even. So,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\le \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|$,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\ge \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|-\sum_{i < j}\left|A_i\cap A_j\right|$,

$\left|\bigcup_{i=1}^n A_i\right|\le \sum_{i=1}^n\left|A_i\right|-\sum_{i < j}\left|A_i\cap A_j\right| +\sum_{i,

and so on.

## Examples

2002 AIME I Problems/Problem 1 http://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=2002_AIME_I_Problems/Problem_1#Problem

2011 AMC 8 Problems/Problem 6 https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=2011_AMC_8_Problems/Problem_6

2017 AMC 10B Problems/Problem 13 https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php?title=2017_AMC_10B_Problems/Problem_13

2005 AMC 12A Problems/Problem 18 https://artofproblemsolving.com/wiki/index.php/2005_AMC_12A_Problems/Problem_18