Statistics is the distinct branch of mathematical science that deals with obtaining, analyzing, and drawing conclusions about a data set. "Applied statistics" is a subset of statistics that deals primarily with statistical analysis on information gathered from an experiment. Most data sets from statistics are from samples from a much larger population size. ""Inferential statistics"" is used to draw inferences from the data after statistical procedures have been performed. Statistics is not to be confused with probability.
Statistics can also be misleading, as shown in the classic book How to Lie with Statistics by Darrell Huff.
Here is a list of common statistical procedures, used to analyze and draw conclusions on a given set of data. Some are dependent on whether the sample data set came from a population with known parameters, like a normal distribution, while others are non-parametric tests
- Student's t-test
- Analysis of Variance test
- Mann-Whitney U-Test
- runs test for randomness
- Chi-Square Test
- Kruskal-Wallis H-test
The significance of a data set tells whether the data set or group is out of the ordinary(special/non-random). This is usually the main objective of statistics.
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