# 1965 IMO Problems/Problem 3

## Problem

Given the tetrahedron $ABCD$ whose edges $AB$ and $CD$ have lengths $a$ and $b$ respectively. The distance between the skew lines $AB$ and $CD$ is $d$, and the angle between them is $\omega$. Tetrahedron $ABCD$ is divided into two solids by plane $\varepsilon$, parallel to lines $AB$ and $CD$. The ratio of the distances of $\varepsilon$ from $AB$ and $CD$ is equal to $k$. Compute the ratio of the volumes of the two solids obtained.

## Solution

Let the plane meet AD at X, BD at Y, BC at Z and AC at W. Take plane parallel to BCD through WX and let it meet AB in P.

Since the distance of AB from WXYZ is k times the distance of CD, we have that AX = k·XD and hence that AX/AD = k/(k+1). Similarly AP/AB = AW/AC = AX/AD. XY is parallel to AB, so also AX/AD = BY/BD = BZ/BC.

vol ABWXYZ = vol APWX + vol WXPBYZ. APWX is similar to the tetrahedron ABCD. The sides are k/(k+1) times smaller, so vol APWX = k3(k+1)3 vol ABCD. The base of the prism WXPBYZ is BYZ which is similar to BCD with sides k/(k+1) times smaller and hence area k2(k+1)2 times smaller. Its height is 1/(k+1) times the height of A above ABCD, so vol prism = 3 k2(k+1)3 vol ABCD. Thus vol ABWXYZ = (k3 + 3k2)/(k+1)3 vol ABCD. We get the vol of the other piece as vol ABCD - vol ABWXYZ and hence the ratio is (after a little manipulation) k2(k+3)/(3k+1).