# 1982 IMO Problems

## Day 1

### Problem 1

The function $f(n)$ is defined on the positive integers and takes non-negative integer values. $f(2)=0,f(3)>0,f(9999)=3333$ and for all $m,n:$ $$f(m+n)-f(m)-f(n)=0 \text{ or } 1.$$ Determine $f(1982)$.

### Problem 2

A non-isosceles triangle $A_{1}A_{2}A_{3}$ has sides $a_{1}$, $a_{2}$, $a_{3}$ with the side $a_{i}$ lying opposite to the vertex $A_{i}$. Let $M_{i}$ be the midpoint of the side $a_{i}$, and let $T_{i}$ be the point where the inscribed circle of triangle $A_{1}A_{2}A_{3}$ touches the side $a_{i}$. Denote by $S_{i}$ the reflection of the point $T_{i}$ in the interior angle bisector of the angle $A_{i}$. Prove that the lines $M_{1}S_{1}$, $M_{2}S_{2}$ and $M_{3}S_{3}$ are concurrent. Solution

### Problem 3

Consider infinite sequences $\{x_n\}$ of positive reals such that $x_0=1$ and $x_0\ge x_1\ge x_2\ge\ldots$.

a) Prove that for every such sequence there is an $n\ge1$ such that: $${x_0^2\over x_1}+{x_1^2\over x_2}+\ldots+{x_{n-1}^2\over x_n}\ge3.999.$$

b) Find such a sequence such that for all $n$: $${x_0^2\over x_1}+{x_1^2\over x_2}+\ldots+{x_{n-1}^2\over x_n}<4.$$ Solution

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Prove that if $n$ is a positive integer such that the equation $$x^3-3xy^2+y^3=n$$ has a solution in integers $x,y$, then it has at least three such solutions. Show that the equation has no solutions in integers for $n=2891$. Solution

### Problem 5

The diagonals $AC$ and $CE$ of the regular hexagon $ABCDEF$ are divided by inner points $M$ and $N$ respectively, so that $${AM\over AC}={CN\over CE}=r.$$ Determine $r$ if $B,M$ and $N$ are collinear. Solution

### Problem 6

Let $S$ be a square with sides length $100$. Let $L$ be a path within $S$ which does not meet itself and which is composed of line segments $A_0A_1,A_1A_2,A_2A_3,\ldots,A_{n-1}A_n$ with $A_0=A_n$. Suppose that for every point $P$ on the boundary of $S$ there is a point of $L$ at a distance from $P$ no greater than $\frac {1} {2}$. Prove that there are two points $X$ and $Y$ of $L$ such that the distance between $X$ and $Y$ is not greater than $1$ and the length of the part of $L$ which lies between $X$ and $Y$ is not smaller than $198$. Solution