1986 IMO Problems

Day 1

Problem 1

Let $d$ be any positive integer not equal to $2, 5$ or $13$. Show that one can find distinct $a,b$ in the set $\{2,5,13,d\}$ such that $ab-1$ is not a perfect square.


Problem 2

Given a point $P_0$ in the plane of the triangle $A_1A_2A_3$. Define $A_s=A_{s-3}$ for all $s\ge4$. Construct a set of points $P_1,P_2,P_3,\ldots$ such that $P_{k+1}$ is the image of $P_k$ under a rotation center $A_{k+1}$ through an angle $120^o$ clockwise for $k=0,1,2,\ldots$. Prove that if $P_{1986}=P_0$, then the triangle $A_1A_2A_3$ is equilateral.


Problem 3

To each vertex of a regular pentagon an integer is assigned, so that the sum of all five numbers is positive. If three consecutive vertices are assigned the numbers $x,y,z$ respectively, and $y<0$, then the following operation is allowed: $x,y,z$ are replaced by $x+y,-y,z+y$ respectively. Such an operation is performed repeatedly as long as at least one of the five numbers is negative. Determine whether this procedure necessarily comes to an end after a finite number of steps.


Day 2

Problem 4

Let $A,B$ be adjacent vertices of a regular $n$-gon ($n\ge5$) with center $O$. A triangle $XYZ$, which is congruent to and initially coincides with $OAB$, moves in the plane in such a way that $Y$ and $Z$ each trace out the whole boundary of the polygon, with $X$ remaining inside the polygon. Find the locus of $X$.


Problem 5

Find all functions $f$ defined on the non-negative reals and taking non-negative real values such that: $f(2)=0,f(x)\ne0$ for $0\le x<2$, and $f(xf(y))f(y)=f(x+y)$ for all $x,y$.


Problem 6

Given a finite set of points in the plane, each with integer coordinates, is it always possible to color the points red or white so that for any straight line $L$ parallel to one of the coordinate axes the difference (in absolute value) between the numbers of white and red points on $L$ is not greater than $1$?


1986 IMO (Problems) • Resources
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1985 IMO
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1987 IMO
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