# 2000 USAMO Problems

Problems of the 2000 USAMO.

## Day 1

### Problem 1

Call a real-valued function $f$ very convex if $$\frac {f(x) + f(y)}{2} \ge f\left(\frac {x + y}{2}\right) + |x - y|$$

holds for all real numbers $x$ and $y$. Prove that no very convex function exists.

### Problem 2

Let $S$ be the set of all triangles $ABC$ for which $$5 \left( \dfrac{1}{AP} + \dfrac{1}{BQ} + \dfrac{1}{CR} \right) - \dfrac{3}{\min\{ AP, BQ, CR \}} = \dfrac{6}{r},$$

where $r$ is the inradius and $P, Q, R$ are the points of tangency of the incircle with sides $AB, BC, CA,$ respectively. Prove that all triangles in $S$ are isosceles and similar to one another.

### Problem 3

A game of solitaire is played with $R$ red cards, $W$ white cards, and $B$ blue cards. A player plays all the cards one at a time. With each play he accumulates a penalty. If he plays a blue card, then he is charged a penalty which is the number of white cards still in his hand. If he plays a white card, then he is charged a penalty which is twice the number of red cards still in his hand. If he plays a red card, then he is charged a penalty which is three times the number of blue cards still in his hand. Find, as a function of $R, W,$ and $B,$ the minimal total penalty a player can amass and all the ways in which this minimum can be achieved.

## Day 2

### Problem 4

Find the smallest positive integer $n$ such that if $n$ squares of a $1000\times 1000$ chessboard are colored, then there will exist three colored squares whose centers form a right triangle with legs parallel to the edges of the board.

### Problem 5

Let $A_1A_2A_3$ be a triangle and let $\omega_1$ be a circle in its plane passing through $A_1$ and $A_2.$ Suppose there exist circles $\omega_2, \omega_3, \dots, \omega_7$ such that for $k = 2, 3, \dots, 7,$ $\omega_k$ is externally tangent to $\omega_{k - 1}$ and passes through $A_k$ and $A_{k + 1},$ where $A_{n + 3} = A_{n}$ for all $n \ge 1$. Prove that $\omega_7 = \omega_1.$

### Problem 6

Let $a_1, b_1, a_2, b_2, \dots , a_n, b_n$ be nonnegative real numbers. Prove that $$\sum_{i, j = 1}^{n} \min\{a_ia_j, b_ib_j\} \le \sum_{i, j = 1}^{n} \min\{a_ib_j, a_jb_i\}.$$

The problems on this page are copyrighted by the Mathematical Association of America's American Mathematics Competitions. 