2009 AIME I Problems/Problem 12

Problem

In right $\triangle ABC$ with hypotenuse $\overline{AB}$, $AC = 12$, $BC = 35$, and $\overline{CD}$ is the altitude to $\overline{AB}$. Let $\omega$ be the circle having $\overline{CD}$ as a diameter. Let $I$ be a point outside $\triangle ABC$ such that $\overline{AI}$ and $\overline{BI}$ are both tangent to circle $\omega$. The ratio of the perimeter of $\triangle ABI$ to the length $AB$ can be expressed in the form $\frac {m}{n}$, where $m$ and $n$ are relatively prime positive integers. Find $m + n$.


Solution 1

Let $O$ be center of the circle and $P$,$Q$ be the two points of tangent such that $P$ is on $BI$ and $Q$ is on $AI$. We know that $AD:CD = CD:BD = 12:35$.

Since the ratios between corresponding lengths of two similar diagrams are equal, we can let $AD = 144, CD = 420$ and $BD = 1225$. Hence $AQ = 144, BP = 1225, AB = 1369$ and the radius $r = OD = 210$.

Since we have $\tan OAB = \frac {35}{24}$ and $\tan OBA = \frac{6}{35}$ , we have $\sin {(OAB + OBA)} = \frac {1369}{\sqrt {(1801*1261)}},$$\cos {(OAB + OBA)} = \frac {630}{\sqrt {(1801*1261)}}$.

Hence $\sin I = \sin {(2OAB + 2OBA)} = \frac {2*1369*630}{1801*1261}$. let $IP = IQ = x$ , then we have Area$(IBC)$ = $(2x + 1225*2 + 144*2)*\frac {210}{2}$ = $(x + 144)(x + 1225)* \sin {\frac {I}{2}}$. Then we get $x + 1369 = \frac {3*1369*(x + 144)(x + 1225)}{1801*1261}$.

Now the equation looks very complex but we can take a guess here. Assume that $x$ is a rational number (If it's not then the answer to the problem would be irrational which can't be in the form of $\frac {m}{n}$) that can be expressed as $\frac {a}{b}$ such that $(a,b) = 1$. Look at both sides; we can know that $a$ has to be a multiple of $1369$ and not of $3$ and it's reasonable to think that $b$ is divisible by $3$ so that we can cancel out the $3$ on the right side of the equation.

Let's see if $x = \frac {1369}{3}$ fits. Since $\frac {1369}{3} + 1369 = \frac {4*1369}{3}$, and $\frac {3*1369*(x + 144)(x + 1225)}{1801*1261} = \frac {3*1369* \frac {1801}{3} * \frac {1261*4}{3}} {1801*1261} = \frac {4*1369}{3}$. Amazingly it fits!

Since we know that $3*1369*144*1225 - 1369*1801*1261 < 0$, the other solution of this equation is negative which can be ignored. Hence $x = 1369/3$.

Hence the perimeter is $1225*2 + 144*2 + \frac {1369}{3} *2 = 1369* \frac {8}{3}$, and $BC$ is $1369$. Hence $\frac {m}{n} = \frac {8}{3}$, $m + n = 11$.

Solution 2

As in Solution $1$, let $P$ and $Q$ be the intersections of $\omega$ with $BI$ and $AI$ respectively.

First, by pythagorean theorem, $AB = \sqrt{12^2+35^2} = 37$. Now the area of $ABC$ is $1/2*12*35 = 1/2*37*CD$, so $CD=\frac{420}{37}$ and the inradius of $\triangle ABI$ is $r=\frac{210}{37}$.

Now from $\triangle CDB \sim \triangle ACB$ we find that $\frac{BC}{BD} = \frac{AB}{BC}$ so $BD = BC^2/AB = 35^2/37$ and similarly, $AD = 12^2/37$.

Note $IP=IQ=x$, $BP=BD$, and $AQ=AD$. So we have $AI = 144/37+x$, $BI = 1225/37+x$. Now we can compute the area of $\triangle ABI$ in two ways: by heron's formula and by inradius times semiperimeter, which yields

$rs=210/37(37+x) = \sqrt{(37+x)(37-144/37)(37-1225/37)x}$

$210/37(37+x) = 12*35/37 \sqrt{x(37+x)}$

$37+x = 2 \sqrt{x(x+37)}$

$x^2+74x+1369 = 4x^2 + 148x$

$3x^2 + 74x - 1369 = 0$

The quadratic formula now yields $x=37/3$. Plugging this back in, the perimeter of $ABI$ is $2s=2(37+x)=2(37+37/3) = 37(8/3)$ so the ratio of the perimeter to $AB$ is $8/3$ and our answer is $8+3=\boxed{011}$

Solution 3

As in Solution $2$, let $P$ and $Q$ be the intersections of $\omega$ with $BI$ and $AI$ respectively.

Recall that the distance from a point outside a circle to that circle is the same along both tangent lines to the circle drawn from the point.

Recall also that the length of the altitude to the hypotenuse of a right-angle triangle is the geometric mean of the two segments into which it cuts the hypotenuse.

Let $x = \overline{AD} = \overline{AQ}$. Let $y = \overline{BD} = \overline{BP}$. Let $z = \overline{PI} = \overline{QI}$. The semi-perimeter of $ABI$ is $x + y + z$. Since the lengths of the sides of $ABI$ are $x + y$, $y + z$ and $x + z$, the square of its area by Heron's formula is $(x+y+z)xyz$.

The radius $r$ of $\omega$ is $\overline{CD}/2$. Therefore $r^2 = xy/4$. As $\omega$ is the in-circle of $ABI$, the area of $ABI$ is also $r(x+y+z)$, and so the square area is $r^2(x+y+z)^2$.

Therefore \[(x+y+z)xyz = r^2(x+y+z)^2 = \frac{xy(x+y+z)^2}{4}\] Dividing both sides by $xy(x+y+z)/4$ we get: \[4z = (x+y+z),\] and so $z = (x+y)/3$. The semi-perimeter of $ABI$ is therefore $\frac{4}{3}(x+y)$ and the whole perimeter is $\frac{8}{3}(x+y)$. Now $x + y = \overline{AB}$, so the ratio of the perimeter of $ABI$ to the hypotenuse $\overline{AB}$ is $8/3$ and our answer is $8+3=\boxed{011}$

Solution 4

We shall yet again let $P$ and $Q$ be the intersections of $AI$ and $BI$ to $\omega$, respectively. We want to find the perimeter of $ABI$, which is $AD+BD+BQ+QI+IP+PA$. We can easily find $AD$ and $BD$ using the fact that $ABC$, $ACD$, and $BCD$ are all similar triangles. We get $AD=\frac{144}{37}$ and $\frac{1225}{37}$. Since $AP$ and $AD$ are tangents to $\omega$, $AP=AD=\frac{144}{37}$, and similarly $BQ=BD=\frac{1225}{37}$. We now wish to find $IP$ and $IQ$.

Let the center of the given circle be $O$. We know that $\angle AOP=\angle AOD$, $\angle BOQ=\angle BOD$, and $\angle IOQ=\angle IOP$. Since all six angles sum to $360^{\circ}$, $\angle AOP+\angle BOQ+\angle IOP=180^{\circ}$. If we knew the radius of circle $\omega$ now, then we could find $\tan{\angle AOP}$ and $\tan{\angle BOQ}$, and then we can use the sum (or difference) of tangents formula to find $\tan{\angle IOP}$, which reveals $IP$. This means we should find the radius of $\omega$. We can easily see that the height of triangle $ABC$ from $C$ has length $\frac{12*35}{37}$, so the radius of $\omega$ is $\frac{210}{37}$. Now we shall proceed with the above plan.

$\tan{\angle AOP}=\frac{144}{210}$. $\tan{\angle BOQ}=\frac{1225}{210}$.

$\tan{\angle IOP}=\tan{(180^{\circ}-\angle AOP-\angle BOQ)}=-\tan{(\angle AOP+\angle BOQ)}$

$=-\frac{\frac{144}{210}+\frac{1225}{210}}{1-\frac{144}{210}*\frac{1225}{210}}=-\frac{1369}{210-\frac{144*1225}{210}}=\frac{1369}{\frac{144*1225}{210}-210}=\frac{37*37}{35*18}$.

Therefore $OP=\frac{210}{37},IP=\frac{37}{3}$, and the perimeter of $AIB$ is $2*\frac{37}{3}+2*\frac{144}{37}+2*\frac{1225}{37}=37*\frac{8}{3}$. Since $AB=37$, the desired ratio is $\frac{8}{3}$, and $8+3=\boxed{011}$.

See also

2009 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 11
Followed by
Problem 13
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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