2018 AMC 12B Problems/Problem 5

Problem

How many subsets of $\{2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9\}$ contain at least one prime number?

$\textbf{(A) } 128 \qquad \textbf{(B) } 192 \qquad \textbf{(C) } 224 \qquad \textbf{(D) } 240 \qquad \textbf{(E) } 256$

Solution 1

Since an element of a subset is either in or out, the total number of subsets of the $8$-element set is $2^8 = 256$. However, since we are only concerned about the subsets with at least $1$ prime in it, we can use complementary counting to count the subsets without a prime and subtract that from the total. Because there are $4$ non-primes, there are $2^8 -2^4 = \boxed{\textbf{(D) } 240}$ subsets with at least $1$ prime.

Solution 2

We can construct our subset by choosing which primes are included and which composites are included. There are $2^4-1$ ways to select the primes (total subsets minus the empty set) and $2^4$ ways to select the composites. Thus, there are $15\cdot16=\boxed{\textbf{(D) } 240}$ ways to choose a subset of the eight numbers.

Solution 3

We complement count. We know that we have $2^8$ subsets in all, including the empty subset. We subtract $\dbinom{4}{0}+\dbinom{4}{1}+\dbinom{4}{2}+\dbinom{4}{3}+\dbinom{4}{4} = 2^4 = 16$ We have $2^8-16 = 256-16 = \boxed{\textbf{(D) }240}$ ways to choose a subset of the eight numbers that include a prime number. ~hh99754539

Video Solution by OmegaLearn

https://youtu.be/8WrdYLw9_ns?t=253

~ pi_is_3.14

See Also

2018 AMC 12B (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 4
Followed by
Problem 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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