Isogonal conjugate

Isogonal conjugates are pairs of points in the plane with respect to a certain triangle.

Construction and Theorem

Let $P$ be a point in the plane, and let $ABC$ be a triangle. We will denote by $a,b,c$ the lines $BC, CA, AB$. Let $p_a, p_b, p_c$ denote the lines $PA$, $PB$, $PC$, respectively. Let $q_a$, $q_b$, $q_c$ be the reflections of $p_a$, $p_b$, $p_c$ over the angle bisectors of angles $A$, $B$, $C$, respectively. Then lines $q_a$, $q_b$, $q_c$ concur at a point $Q$, called the isogonal conjugate of $P$ with respect to triangle $ABC$.


By our constructions of the lines $q$, $\angle p_a b \equiv \angle q_a c$, and this statement remains true after permuting $a,b,c$. Therefore by the trigonometric form of Ceva's Theorem \[\frac{\sin \angle q_a b}{\sin \angle c q_a} \cdot \frac{\sin \angle q_b c}{\sin \angle a q_b} \cdot \frac{\sin \angle q_c a}{\sin \angle b q_c} = \frac{\sin \angle p_a c}{\sin \angle b p_a} \cdot \frac{\sin \angle p_b a}{\sin \angle c p_b} \cdot \frac{\sin \angle p_c b}{\sin \angle a p_c} = 1,\] so again by the trigonometric form of Ceva, the lines $q_a, q_b, q_c$ concur, as was to be proven. $\blacksquare$



Given a nonisosceles, nonright triangle $ABC,$ let $O$ denote the center of its circumscribed circle, and let $A_1, \, B_1,$ and $C_1$ be the midpoints of sides $BC, \, CA,$ and $AB,$ respectively. Point $A_2$ is located on the ray $OA_1$ so that $\triangle OAA_1$ is similar to $\triangle OA_2A$. Points $B_2$ and $C_2$ on rays $OB_1$ and $OC_1,$ respectively, are defined similarly. Prove that lines $AA_2, \, BB_2,$ and $CC_2$ are concurrent, i.e. these three lines intersect at a point. (Source)

Let $P$ be a given point inside quadrilateral $ABCD$. Points $Q_1$ and $Q_2$ are located within $ABCD$ such that $\angle Q_1 BC = \angle ABP$, $\angle Q_1 CB = \angle DCP$, $\angle Q_2 AD = \angle BAP$, $\angle Q_2 DA = \angle CDP$. Prove that $\overline{Q_1 Q_2} \parallel \overline{AB}$ if and only if $\overline{Q_1 Q_2} \parallel \overline{CD}$. (Source)

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