# Sum and difference of powers

The sum and difference of powers are powerful factoring techniques that, respectively, factor a sum or a difference of certain powers.

## Sums of Odd Powers

$a^{2n+1}+b^{2n+1}=(a+b)(a^{2n}-a^{2n-1}b+a^{2n-2}b^2-\ldots-ab^{2n-1}+b^{2n})$

## Differences of Powers

If $p$ is a positive integer and $x$ and $y$ are real numbers,

$x^{p+1}-y^{p+1}=(x-y)(x^p+x^{p-1}y+\cdots +xy^{p-1}+y^p)$

For example:

$x^2-y^2=(x-y)(x+y)$

$x^3-y^3=(x-y)(x^2+xy+y^2)$

$x^4-y^4=(x-y)(x^3+x^2y+xy^2+y^3)$

Note that the number of terms in the second factor is equal to the exponent in the expression being factored.

An amazing thing happens when $x$ and $y$ differ by $1$, say, $x = y+1$. Then $x-y = 1$ and

$x^{p+1}-y^{p+1}=(y+1)^{p+1}-y^{p+1}$

$=(y+1)^p+(y+1)^{p-1}y+\cdots +(y+1)y^{p-1} +y^p$.

For example:

$(y+1)^2-y^2=(y+1)+y$

$(y+1)^3-y^3=(y+1)^2+(y+1)y+y^2$

$(y+1)^4-y^4=(y+1)^3+(y+1)^2y+(y+1)y^2+y^3$

If we also know that $y\geq 0$ then:

$2y\leq (y+1)^2-y^2\leq 2(y+1)$

$3y^2\leq (y+1)^3-y^3\leq 3(y+1)^2$

$4y^3\leq (y+1)^4-y^4\leq 4(y+1)^3$

$(p+1)y^p\leq (y+1)^{p+1}-y^{p+1}\leq (p+1)(y+1)^p$

## Sum of Cubes

$1^3=1^2$

$1^3+2^3 =3^2$

$1^3 +2^3+3^3=6^2$

$1^3+2^3+3^3+4^3=10^2$

$1^3+2^3+3^3+4^3+\ldots+n^3=\left(\frac{n(n+1)}{2} \right) ^2=(1+2+3+4+\ldots+n)^2$

## Factorizations of Sums of Powers

$x^2-y^2=(x-y)(x+y)$

$x^3-y^3=(x-y)(x^2+xy+y^2)$

$x^4-y^4=(x-y)(x^3+x^2y+xy^2+y^3)$

Note that all these sums of powers can be factorized as follows:

If we have a difference of powers of degree $n$, then

$$x^n-y^n=(x-y)(x^{n - 1}+x^{n-2}y+x^{n-3}y^2...+y^{n - 1})$$

Note, of course, that some of the signs simply change when we have sum of powers instead of difference. Regardless, observe that the "longer" polynomial in the factorization is simply a binomial theorem expansion of the binomial $(x+y)^n$, except for the fact that the coefficient on each of the terms is $1$. This can be quite useful in problems that might have a sum of powers expression as well as an application of the binomial theorem.

- icecreamrolls8