Difference between revisions of "2003 AMC 10A Problems/Problem 25"

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<math> \mathrm{(A) \ } 8180\qquad \mathrm{(B) \ } 8181\qquad \mathrm{(C) \ } 8182\qquad \mathrm{(D) \ } 9000\qquad \mathrm{(E) \ } 9090 </math>
 
<math> \mathrm{(A) \ } 8180\qquad \mathrm{(B) \ } 8181\qquad \mathrm{(C) \ } 8182\qquad \mathrm{(D) \ } 9000\qquad \mathrm{(E) \ } 9090 </math>
  
== Solution ==
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== Solutions ==
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=== Simple Solution ===
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<math>11|q+r</math> implies that <math>11|100q+r</math>, so <math>11|n</math>. Then, <math>n</math> can range from <math>10010</math> to <math>99990</math> for a total of <math>\boxed{8181\Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}}</math> numbers.
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=== Solution 1 ===
 
=== Solution 1 ===
 
When a <math>5</math>-digit number is divided by <math>100</math>, the first <math>3</math> digits become the quotient, <math>q</math>, and the last <math>2</math> digits become the remainder, <math>r</math>.  
 
When a <math>5</math>-digit number is divided by <math>100</math>, the first <math>3</math> digits become the quotient, <math>q</math>, and the last <math>2</math> digits become the remainder, <math>r</math>.  
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Since there is <math>1</math> "extra" possible value of <math>r</math> that is congruent to <math>0\pmod{11}</math>, each of the <math>\left\lfloor \frac{900}{11} \right\rfloor = 81</math> values of <math>q</math> that are congruent to <math>0\pmod{11}</math> have <math>1</math> more possible value of <math>r</math> such that <math>q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}</math>.  
 
Since there is <math>1</math> "extra" possible value of <math>r</math> that is congruent to <math>0\pmod{11}</math>, each of the <math>\left\lfloor \frac{900}{11} \right\rfloor = 81</math> values of <math>q</math> that are congruent to <math>0\pmod{11}</math> have <math>1</math> more possible value of <math>r</math> such that <math>q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}</math>.  
  
Therefore, the number of possible values of <math>n</math> such that <math>q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}</math> is <math>900\cdot9+81\cdot1=8181 \Rightarrow B</math>.  
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Therefore, the number of possible values of <math>n</math> such that <math>q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}</math> is <math>900\cdot9+81\cdot1=8181 \Rightarrow B</math>.
  
 
=== Solution 2 ===
 
=== Solution 2 ===
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Therefore, the five digit number <math>n</math> is divisible by 11. The 5-digit multiples of 11 range from <math>910\cdot 11</math> to <math>9090\cdot 11</math>. There are <math>8181\Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}</math> divisors of 11 between those inclusive.
 
Therefore, the five digit number <math>n</math> is divisible by 11. The 5-digit multiples of 11 range from <math>910\cdot 11</math> to <math>9090\cdot 11</math>. There are <math>8181\Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}</math> divisors of 11 between those inclusive.
  
===Solution 3===
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==== Note ====
 
 
Since <math>q</math> is a quotient and <math>r</math> is a remainder when <math>n</math> is divided by <math>100</math>. So we have <math>n=100q+r</math>. Since we are counting choices where <math>q+r</math> is divisible by <math>11</math>, we have <math>n=99q+q+r=99q+11k</math> for some <math>k</math>. This means that <math>n</math> is the sum of two multiples of <math>11</math> and would thus itself be a divisor of <math>11</math>. Then we can count all the four digit divisors of <math>11</math> as in Solution 2. (This solution is essentially the same as Solution 2, but it does not necessarily involve mods and so could potentially be faster.)
 
 
 
==== Notes ====
 
  
 
The part labeled "divisor trick" actually follows from the same observation we made in the previous step: <math>10\equiv (-1)\pmod{11}</math>, therefore <math>10^{2k}\equiv 1</math> and <math>10^{2k+1}\equiv (-1)</math> for all <math>k</math>.  
 
The part labeled "divisor trick" actually follows from the same observation we made in the previous step: <math>10\equiv (-1)\pmod{11}</math>, therefore <math>10^{2k}\equiv 1</math> and <math>10^{2k+1}\equiv (-1)</math> for all <math>k</math>.  
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Also note that in the "divisor trick" we actually want to assign the signs backwards - if we make sure that the last sign is a <math>+</math>, the result will have the same remainder modulo <math>11</math> as the original number.
 
Also note that in the "divisor trick" we actually want to assign the signs backwards - if we make sure that the last sign is a <math>+</math>, the result will have the same remainder modulo <math>11</math> as the original number.
 +
 +
=== Solution 3 ===
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 +
Since <math>q</math> is a quotient and <math>r</math> is a remainder when <math>n</math> is divided by <math>100</math>. So we have <math>n=100q+r</math>. Since we are counting choices where <math>q+r</math> is divisible by <math>11</math>, we have <math>n=99q+q+r=99q+11k</math> for some <math>k</math>. This means that <math>n</math> is the sum of two multiples of <math>11</math> and would thus itself be a multiple of <math>11</math>. Then we can count all the five digit multiples of <math>11</math> as in Solution 2. (This solution is essentially the same as Solution 2, but it does not necessarily involve mods and so could potentially be faster.)
  
 
== See Also ==
 
== See Also ==
{{AMC10 box|year=2003|ab=A|num-b=24|after=Final Question}}
+
{{AMC10 box|year=2003|ab=A|num-b=24|after=Last Question}}
 
+
{{AMC12 box|year=2003|ab=A|num-b=17|num-a=19}}
 
[[Category:Introductory Number Theory Problems]]
 
[[Category:Introductory Number Theory Problems]]
 +
{{MAA Notice}}

Latest revision as of 17:12, 28 December 2020

Problem

Let $n$ be a $5$-digit number, and let $q$ and $r$ be the quotient and the remainder, respectively, when $n$ is divided by $100$. For how many values of $n$ is $q+r$ divisible by $11$?

$\mathrm{(A) \ } 8180\qquad \mathrm{(B) \ } 8181\qquad \mathrm{(C) \ } 8182\qquad \mathrm{(D) \ } 9000\qquad \mathrm{(E) \ } 9090$

Solutions

Simple Solution

$11|q+r$ implies that $11|100q+r$, so $11|n$. Then, $n$ can range from $10010$ to $99990$ for a total of $\boxed{8181\Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}}$ numbers.

Solution 1

When a $5$-digit number is divided by $100$, the first $3$ digits become the quotient, $q$, and the last $2$ digits become the remainder, $r$.

Therefore, $q$ can be any integer from $100$ to $999$ inclusive, and $r$ can be any integer from $0$ to $99$ inclusive.

For each of the $9\cdot10\cdot10=900$ possible values of $q$, there are at least $\left\lfloor \frac{100}{11} \right\rfloor = 9$ possible values of $r$ such that $q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}$.

Since there is $1$ "extra" possible value of $r$ that is congruent to $0\pmod{11}$, each of the $\left\lfloor \frac{900}{11} \right\rfloor = 81$ values of $q$ that are congruent to $0\pmod{11}$ have $1$ more possible value of $r$ such that $q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}$.

Therefore, the number of possible values of $n$ such that $q+r \equiv 0\pmod{11}$ is $900\cdot9+81\cdot1=8181 \Rightarrow B$.

Solution 2

Let $n$ equal $\overline{abcde}$, where $a$ through $e$ are digits. Therefore,

$q=\overline{abc}=100a+10b+c$

$r=\overline{de}=10d+e$

We now take $q+r\bmod{11}$:

$q+r=100a+10b+c+10d+e\equiv a-b+c-d+e\equiv 0\bmod{11}$

The divisor trick for 11 is as follows:

"Let $n=\overline{a_1a_2a_3\cdots a_x}$ be an $x$ digit integer. If $a_1-a_2+a_3-\cdots +(-1)^{x-1} a_x$ is divisible by $11$, then $n$ is also divisible by $11$."

Therefore, the five digit number $n$ is divisible by 11. The 5-digit multiples of 11 range from $910\cdot 11$ to $9090\cdot 11$. There are $8181\Rightarrow \mathrm{(B)}$ divisors of 11 between those inclusive.

Note

The part labeled "divisor trick" actually follows from the same observation we made in the previous step: $10\equiv (-1)\pmod{11}$, therefore $10^{2k}\equiv 1$ and $10^{2k+1}\equiv (-1)$ for all $k$. For a $5-$digit number $\overline{abcde}$ we get $\overline{abcde}\equiv a\cdot 1 + b\cdot(-1) + c\cdot 1 + d\cdot(-1) + e\cdot 1 = a-b+c-d+e$, as claimed.

Also note that in the "divisor trick" we actually want to assign the signs backwards - if we make sure that the last sign is a $+$, the result will have the same remainder modulo $11$ as the original number.

Solution 3

Since $q$ is a quotient and $r$ is a remainder when $n$ is divided by $100$. So we have $n=100q+r$. Since we are counting choices where $q+r$ is divisible by $11$, we have $n=99q+q+r=99q+11k$ for some $k$. This means that $n$ is the sum of two multiples of $11$ and would thus itself be a multiple of $11$. Then we can count all the five digit multiples of $11$ as in Solution 2. (This solution is essentially the same as Solution 2, but it does not necessarily involve mods and so could potentially be faster.)

See Also

2003 AMC 10A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 24
Followed by
Last Question
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 10 Problems and Solutions
2003 AMC 12A (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 17
Followed by
Problem 19
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25
All AMC 12 Problems and Solutions

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