Difference between revisions of "2011 AIME I Problems/Problem 11"

(the incorrect problem was up, I changed it to the actual one)
(Solution 2)
 
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==Problem==
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Let <math>R</math> be the set of all possible remainders when a number of the form <math>2^n</math>, <math>n</math> a nonnegative integer, is divided by 1000. Let <math>S</math> be the sum of the elements in <math>R</math>. Find the remainder when <math>S</math> is divided by 1000.
 
Let <math>R</math> be the set of all possible remainders when a number of the form <math>2^n</math>, <math>n</math> a nonnegative integer, is divided by 1000. Let <math>S</math> be the sum of the elements in <math>R</math>. Find the remainder when <math>S</math> is divided by 1000.
  
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&\equiv 0 \pmod{125}.\end{align*}</cmath>
 
&\equiv 0 \pmod{125}.\end{align*}</cmath>
 
Then, since <math>T</math> is divisible by <math>125</math> and <math>8</math>, it follows that <math>T</math> is divisible by <math>1000.</math> Therefore, <cmath>S = R + T \equiv R \equiv \boxed{007} \pmod{1000}.</cmath>
 
Then, since <math>T</math> is divisible by <math>125</math> and <math>8</math>, it follows that <math>T</math> is divisible by <math>1000.</math> Therefore, <cmath>S = R + T \equiv R \equiv \boxed{007} \pmod{1000}.</cmath>
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== Solution 3 ==
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Obviously, <math>2^i</math> will have to repeat at some point, and our goal is just to find when it repeats. Suppose <math>2^a</math> is the first time the powers of 2 repeat mod 1000, and that it is the same as <math>2^b</math> where <math>b < a.</math> We have
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<cmath>2^a \equiv 2^b \mod 1000 \rightarrow 2^a - 2^b \equiv 0 \mod 1000 </cmath>
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We can factor out a <math>2^b</math> to get
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<cmath>2^b\left(2^{a-b} - 1\right) \equiv 0 \mod 1000</cmath>
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Now, let's apply CRT. Obviously, if it is 0 mod 1000, this means directly that it is 0 mod 8 and 0 mod 125. Since <math>2^{a-b} - 1</math> has to be odd, this necessarily means <math>b \ge 3</math> for <math>8 \div 2^b.</math> This means that 125 has to divide <math>2^{a-b} - 1.</math> We wish to find the minimum <math>a - b</math> such that this is true, or similarly, we just wish to find <math>\text{ord}_{125}(2).</math> Note that by Euler's Totient Theorem, that <math>2^{100} \equiv 1 \mod 125.</math> After checking, and seeing that <math>2^{50} \equiv -1 \mod 125</math>, this directly means that <math>\text{ord}_{125}(2) = 100</math> or <math>a - b = 100.</math> Since <math>b \ge 3</math>, the smallest <math>(a, b)</math> pair is
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<math>(103, 3).</math> What this really means is that the sequence of remainders will start repeating at <math>2^{103}</math> or namely that
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<math>\{2^0, 2^1, ..., 2^{102}\}</math> are all distinct residues mod 1000. Adding these yields <cmath>2^{103} - 1 \equiv 8 - 1 \equiv \boxed{7} \mod 1000</cmath>
  
 
== See also ==
 
== See also ==

Latest revision as of 13:21, 13 July 2021

Problem

Let $R$ be the set of all possible remainders when a number of the form $2^n$, $n$ a nonnegative integer, is divided by 1000. Let $S$ be the sum of the elements in $R$. Find the remainder when $S$ is divided by 1000.

Solution 1

Note that $x \equiv y \pmod{1000} \Leftrightarrow x \equiv y \pmod{125}$ and $x \equiv y \pmod{8}$. So we must find the first two integers $i$ and $j$ such that $2^i \equiv 2^j \pmod{125}$ and $2^i \equiv 2^j \pmod{8}$ and $i \neq j$. Note that $i$ and $j$ will be greater than 2 since remainders of $1, 2, 4$ will not be possible after 2 (the numbers following will always be congruent to 0 modulo 8). Note that $2^{100}\equiv 1\pmod{125}$ (see Euler's theorem) and $2^0,2^1,2^2,\ldots,2^{99}$ are all distinct modulo 125 (proof below). Thus, $i = 103$ and $j =3$ are the first two integers such that $2^i \equiv 2^j \pmod{1000}$. All that is left is to find $S$ in mod $1000$. After some computation: \[S = 2^0+2^1+2^2+2^3+2^4+...+2^{101}+ 2^{102} = 2^{103}-1 \equiv 8 - 1 \mod 1000 = \boxed{007}.\] To show that $2^0, 2^1,\ldots, 2^{99}$ are distinct modulo 125, suppose for the sake of contradiction that they are not. Then, we must have at least one of $2^{20}\equiv 1\pmod{125}$ or $2^{50}\equiv 1\pmod{125}$. However, writing $2^{10}\equiv 25 - 1\pmod{125}$, we can easily verify that $2^{20}\equiv -49\pmod{125}$ and $2^{50}\equiv -1\pmod{125}$, giving us the needed contradiction.

Solution 2

Notice that our sum of remainders looks like \[S = 1 + 2 + 4 + 2^3 + 2^4 + \cdots.\] We want to find the remainder of $S$ upon division by $1000.$ Since $1000$ decomposes into primes as $1000 = 2^3 \cdot 5^3$, we can check the remainders of $S$ modulo $2^3$ and modulo $5^3$ separately.

Checking $S$ modulo $2^3$ is easy, so lets start by computing the remainder of $S$ upon division by $5^3.$ To do this, let's figure out when our sequence finally repeats. Notice that since the remainder when dividing any term of $S$ (after the third term) by $1000$ will be a multiple of $2^3$, when this summation finally repeats, the first term to repeat will be not be $1$ since $2^3 \nmid 1.$ Instead, the first term to repeat will be $2^3$, and then the sequence will continue once again $2^4, 2^5, \cdots.$

Now, to compute $S$ modulo $125$, we want to find the least positive integer $d$ such that $2^d \equiv 1 \pmod {125}$ since then $d$ will just be the number of terms of $S$ (after the third term!) before the sequence repeats. In other words, our sequence will be of the form $S = 1 + 2 + 4 + \left(2^3 + 2^4 + \cdots + 2^{2 + d}\right)$ and then we will have $2^{d + 3} \equiv 2^3 \pmod {125}$, and the sequence will repeat from there. Here, $d$ simply represents the order of $2$ modulo $125$, denoted by $d = \text{ord}_{125}(2).$ To begin with, we'll use a well-known property of the order to get a bound on $d.$

Since $\gcd(2, 125) = 1$ and $\phi(125) = 100$, we know by Euler's Theorem that $2^{100} \equiv 1 \pmod {125}.$ However, we do not know that $100$ is the least $d$ satisfying $2^d \equiv 1 \pmod {125}.$ Nonetheless, it is a well known property of the order that $\text{ord}_{125}(2) = d | \phi(125) = 100.$ Therefore, we can conclude that $d$ must be a positive divisor of $100.$

Now, this still leaves a lot of possibilities, so let's consider a smaller modulus for the moment, say $\mod 5.$ Clearly, we must have that $2^d \equiv 1 \pmod 5.$ Since $2^4 \equiv 1 \pmod 5$ and powers of two will then cycle every four terms, we know that $2^d \equiv 1 \pmod 5 \iff 4 | d.$ Combining this relation with $d | 100$, it follows that $d \in \{4, 20, 100\}.$

Now, it is trivial to verify that $d \ne 4.$ In addition, we know that \[2^{20} = \left(2^{10}\right)^2 = \left(1024\right)^2 \equiv 24^2 = 576 \not\equiv 1 \pmod {125}.\] Therefore, we conclude that $d \ne 20.$ Hence, we must have $d = 100.$ (Notice that we could have guessed this by Euler's, but we couldn't have been certain without investigating the order more thoroughly).

Now, since we have found $d = 100$, we know that \[S = 1 + 2 + 4 + 2^3 + 2^4 + \cdots + 2^{102}.\] There are two good ways to finish from here:

The first way is to use a trick involving powers of $2.$ Notice that \[S = 1 + 2 + 4 + ... + 2^{102} = 2^{103} - 1.\] Certainly \[S = 2^{103} - 1 \equiv -1 \equiv 7 \pmod {8}.\] In addition, since we already computed $\text{ord}_{125}(2) = d = 100$, we know that \[S = 2^{103} - 1 = 2^{100} \cdot 2^3 - 1 \equiv 2^3 - 1 \equiv 7 \pmod {125}.\] Therefore, since $S \equiv 7 \pmod{8}$ and $S \equiv 7 \pmod{125}$, we conclude that $S \equiv \boxed{007} \pmod {1000}.$

The second way is not as slick, but works better in a general setting when there aren't any convenient tricks as in Method 1. Let us split the terms of $S$ into groups: \[R = 1 + 2 + 4; \quad T = 2^3 + 2^4 + \cdots + 2^{102}.\] It is easy to see that $R$ is congruent to $7$ modulo $1000.$

Now, for $T$, notice that there are $100$ terms in the summation, each with a different remainder upon division by $125.$ Since each of these remainders is certainly relatively prime to $125$, these $100$ remainders correspond to the $100$ positive integers less than $125$ that are relatively prime to $125.$ Therefore, \begin{align*}T &\equiv 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 11 + \cdots + 124 \pmod{125} \\ &= \left(1 + 2 + 3 + \cdots + 125\right) - \left(5 + 10 + 15 + \cdots 125\right) \\ &= \frac{125 \cdot 126}{2} - 5\left(1 + 2 + 3 + \cdots 25\right) \\ &= 125 \cdot 63 - 5\left(\frac{25 \cdot 26}{2}\right) \\ &= 125\left(63 - 13\right) \\ &\equiv 0 \pmod{125}.\end{align*} Then, since $T$ is divisible by $125$ and $8$, it follows that $T$ is divisible by $1000.$ Therefore, \[S = R + T \equiv R \equiv \boxed{007} \pmod{1000}.\]

Solution 3

Obviously, $2^i$ will have to repeat at some point, and our goal is just to find when it repeats. Suppose $2^a$ is the first time the powers of 2 repeat mod 1000, and that it is the same as $2^b$ where $b < a.$ We have \[2^a \equiv 2^b \mod 1000 \rightarrow 2^a - 2^b \equiv 0 \mod 1000\] We can factor out a $2^b$ to get \[2^b\left(2^{a-b} - 1\right) \equiv 0 \mod 1000\] Now, let's apply CRT. Obviously, if it is 0 mod 1000, this means directly that it is 0 mod 8 and 0 mod 125. Since $2^{a-b} - 1$ has to be odd, this necessarily means $b \ge 3$ for $8 \div 2^b.$ This means that 125 has to divide $2^{a-b} - 1.$ We wish to find the minimum $a - b$ such that this is true, or similarly, we just wish to find $\text{ord}_{125}(2).$ Note that by Euler's Totient Theorem, that $2^{100} \equiv 1 \mod 125.$ After checking, and seeing that $2^{50} \equiv -1 \mod 125$, this directly means that $\text{ord}_{125}(2) = 100$ or $a - b = 100.$ Since $b \ge 3$, the smallest $(a, b)$ pair is $(103, 3).$ What this really means is that the sequence of remainders will start repeating at $2^{103}$ or namely that $\{2^0, 2^1, ..., 2^{102}\}$ are all distinct residues mod 1000. Adding these yields \[2^{103} - 1 \equiv 8 - 1 \equiv \boxed{7} \mod 1000\]

See also

2011 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 10
Followed by
Problem 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions

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