Difference between revisions of "2011 AIME I Problems/Problem 4"

(Problem 4)
(Solution)
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== Solution ==  
 
== Solution ==  
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Extend <math>{MN}</math> such that it intersects lines <math>{AC}</math> and <math>{BC}</math> at points <math>O</math> and <math>Q</math>, respectively.
  
Extend <math>{MN}</math> such that it intersects lines <math>{AC}</math> and <math>{BC}</math> at points <math>O</math> and <math>Q</math>, respectively. Notice that <math>{OQ}</math> is a midline; it then follows that <math>{OC} = 58.5</math> and <math>{QC} = 60</math>. Now notice that <math>\triangle MQC</math> and <math>\triangle NOC</math> are both isosceles. Thus, <math>ON = OC = 58.5</math> and <math>MQ = QC = 60</math>. Since <math>OQ</math> is a midline, <math>OQ = 62.5</math>. We want to find <math>MN</math>, which is just <math>ON + MQ - OQ</math>.  
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'''Lemma 1: <math>O, Q</math> are midpoints of <math>AC</math> and <math>BC</math>'''
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'''Proof:''' Consider the reflection of the vertex <math>C</math> over the line <math>BM</math>, and let this point be <math>C_1</math>. Since <math>\angle{BMC} = 90^{\circ}</math>, we have that <math>C_1</math> is the image of <math>C</math> after reflection over <math>M</math>, and from the definition of reflection <math>\angle{MBC} = \angle{MBC_1}</math>. Then it is easily seen that since <math>BM</math> is an angle bisector, that <math>\angle{MBC_1} = \angle{MBA}</math>, so <math>C_1</math> lies on <math>AB</math>. Similarly, if we define <math>C_2</math> to be the reflection of <math>C</math> over <math>N</math>, then we find that <math>C_2</math> lies on <math>AB</math>. Then we can now see that <math>\triangle{CMN} \sim \triangle{CC_1C_2}</math>, with a homothety of ratio <math>2</math> taking the first triangle to the second. Then this same homothety takes everything on the line <math>MN</math> to everything on the line <math>AB</math>. So since <math>O, Q</math> lie on <math>MN</math>, this homothety also takes <math>O, Q</math> to <math>A, B</math> so they are midpoints, as desired. <math>\Box</math>
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'''Lemma 2: <math>\triangle{MQC}, \triangle{NOC}</math> are isosceles triangles'''
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'''Proof:''' To show that <math>\triangle{MQC}</math> is isosceles, note that <math>\triangle{MQC} \sim \triangle{C_1BC}</math>, with similarity ratio of <math>\frac{1}{2}</math>. So it suffices to show that triangle <math>\triangle{C_1BC}</math> is isosceles. But this follows quickly from Lemma 1, since <math>BM</math> is both an altitude and an angle bisector of <math>\angle{C_1BC}</math>. <math>\triangle{NOC}</math> is isosceles by the same reasoning. <math>\Box</math>
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Since <math>{OQ}</math> is a midline, it then follows that <math>{OC} = 58.5</math> and <math>{QC} = 60</math>. Since <math>\triangle MQC</math> and <math>\triangle NOC</math> are both isosceles, we have that <math>ON = OC = 58.5</math> and <math>MQ = QC = 60</math>. Since <math>OQ</math> is a midline, <math>OQ = 62.5</math>. We want to find <math>MN</math>, which is just <math>ON + MQ - OQ</math>.  
  
 
Substituting, the answer is <math>58.5 + 60 - 62.5 = \boxed {56}</math>.
 
Substituting, the answer is <math>58.5 + 60 - 62.5 = \boxed {56}</math>.

Revision as of 18:36, 14 March 2012

Problem 4

In triangle $ABC$, $AB=125$, $AC=117$ and $BC=120$. The angle bisector of angle $A$ intersects $\overline{BC}$ at point $L$, and the angle bisector of angle $B$ intersects $\overline{AC}$ at point $K$. Let $M$ and $N$ be the feet of the perpendiculars from $C$ to $\overline{BK}$ and $\overline{AL}$, respectively. Find $MN$.


Solution

Extend ${MN}$ such that it intersects lines ${AC}$ and ${BC}$ at points $O$ and $Q$, respectively.


Lemma 1: $O, Q$ are midpoints of $AC$ and $BC$

Proof: Consider the reflection of the vertex $C$ over the line $BM$, and let this point be $C_1$. Since $\angle{BMC} = 90^{\circ}$, we have that $C_1$ is the image of $C$ after reflection over $M$, and from the definition of reflection $\angle{MBC} = \angle{MBC_1}$. Then it is easily seen that since $BM$ is an angle bisector, that $\angle{MBC_1} = \angle{MBA}$, so $C_1$ lies on $AB$. Similarly, if we define $C_2$ to be the reflection of $C$ over $N$, then we find that $C_2$ lies on $AB$. Then we can now see that $\triangle{CMN} \sim \triangle{CC_1C_2}$, with a homothety of ratio $2$ taking the first triangle to the second. Then this same homothety takes everything on the line $MN$ to everything on the line $AB$. So since $O, Q$ lie on $MN$, this homothety also takes $O, Q$ to $A, B$ so they are midpoints, as desired. $\Box$

Lemma 2: $\triangle{MQC}, \triangle{NOC}$ are isosceles triangles

Proof: To show that $\triangle{MQC}$ is isosceles, note that $\triangle{MQC} \sim \triangle{C_1BC}$, with similarity ratio of $\frac{1}{2}$. So it suffices to show that triangle $\triangle{C_1BC}$ is isosceles. But this follows quickly from Lemma 1, since $BM$ is both an altitude and an angle bisector of $\angle{C_1BC}$. $\triangle{NOC}$ is isosceles by the same reasoning. $\Box$


Since ${OQ}$ is a midline, it then follows that ${OC} = 58.5$ and ${QC} = 60$. Since $\triangle MQC$ and $\triangle NOC$ are both isosceles, we have that $ON = OC = 58.5$ and $MQ = QC = 60$. Since $OQ$ is a midline, $OQ = 62.5$. We want to find $MN$, which is just $ON + MQ - OQ$.

Substituting, the answer is $58.5 + 60 - 62.5 = \boxed {56}$.

See also

2011 AIME I (ProblemsAnswer KeyResources)
Preceded by
Problem 3
Followed by
Problem 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
All AIME Problems and Solutions
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